ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transungual nail penetrance has traditionally been considered to be the only route of delivery for topical antifungals in onychomycosis. Subungual penetrance may be an alternate route of delivery.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of efinaconazole vehicle solution to reach the site of toenail onychomycosis through application to the hyponychium or hyponychium and dorsal nail surface, and assess the impact of the air gap between the nail plate and nail bed.
METHODS: Twenty-three participants with moderate to severe, mycologically-confirmed onychomycosis were enrolled (mean age, 48.5 years). Two separate applications of vehicle solution containing fluorescein for visualization were applied at the hyponychium or hyponychium
and dorsal nail surface. Affected nails were later clipped to allow examination of the nail bed and further examination of the ventral surface of the nail. Spread of formulation was assessed under visible and UV light conditions by photographing target toenails after vehicle application and after nail clipping.
RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between the size of the air gap and degree of affected nail involvement (R2=0.064). Assessments
under both visible and UV light indicated that the vehicle had spread to the site of infection, with deposition of fluorescein wherever vehicle had reached, irrespective of application methodology or size of air gap. Nail clippings also indicated absorption into the ventral surface of the nail plate.
LIMITATIONS: The relative contributions of subungual versus transungual application of drug to the nail plate to the efficacy of efinaconazole
topical solution, 10% in treating onychomycosis were not assessed.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the low surface tension vehicle developed for efinaconazole topical solution, 10% can reach the site of infection by application to the hyponychium, dorsal or ventral nail surface and nail folds. This multidirectional approach to drug delivery at the site of fungal infection may contribute to the magnitude of efficacy seen in clinical trials.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(8):859-863. more
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In the Comparative Study of Humira vs Methotrexate vs Placebo In Psoriasis Patients (CHAMPION) study, significantly
more patients achieved ≥75% improvement in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI75) and ≥90% improvement (PASI90) after 16 weeks of treatment with adalimumab (80 mg at week 0, then 40 mg every other week starting at week 1) compared with methotrexate (up to 25 mg/week orally) or placebo. In this exploratory analysis, the efficacy of adalimumab was evaluated in a subset of the CHAMPION patient population stratified by baseline body mass index (BMI).
METHODS: PASI responses and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores through 16 weeks of treatment were examined by baseline BMI category (<25 kg/m2 [normal], 25 to <30 kg/m2 [overweight], and ≥30 kg/m2 [obese]) in patients with psoriasis with a baseline PASI total score ≥12. Treatment differences between the adalimumab and the methotrexate or placebo groups were compared using Fisher’s exact test for PASI responses and 1-way analysis of variance for DLQI scores.
RESULTS: In all BMI categories, adalimumab treatment led to significantly greater rates of PASI75/90 responses at weeks 12 and 16 compared with methotrexate or placebo (P<0.05 for all). In normal weight, overweight, and obese patients at week 16, the respective PASI75 response rates were 85.0%, 85.7%, and 61.3% with adalimumab; 43.3%, 29.3%, and 26.1% with methotrexate;
and 28.6%, 16.7%, and 0% with placebo. PASI90 response rates were 70.0%, 53.6%, and 35.5% with adalimumab; 26.7%, 7.3%, and 8.7% with methotrexate; and 9.5%, 16.7%, and 0% with placebo. Across all BMI subgroups, the greatest decreases in DLQI scores from baseline occurred in the adalimumab group.
CONCLUSION: Significantly higher PASI75/90 response rates and more pronounced improvements in DLQI scores at week 16 were identified in patients treated with adalimumab, compared with methotrexate or placebo, regardless of baseline BMI category.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(8):864-868. more
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To identify those patients who are more likely to achieve treatment success with efinaconazole topical solution 10% based on clinical improvement and mycological status during treatment.
METHODS: A subgroup analysis of patients, aged 18 to 70 years, randomized to receive efinaconazole topical solution 10% or vehicle from 2 identical multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled 48-week studies evaluating safety and efficacy. The primary end point, complete cure rate (0% clinical involvement of target toenail, and both negative potassium hydroxide examination and fungal culture) at week 52 was evaluated based on mycologic cure at week 24, and the degree of clinical improvement in nail involvement at week 12.
RESULTS: Over a quarter (25.1%) of patients treated with efinaconazole topical solution 10% who could demonstrate at least 10% improvement in affected nail involvement by week 12 progressed to complete cures at week 52. Similarly, 21.7% of patients who demonstrated mycologic cure at week 24 achieved complete cures at week 52.
CONCLUSIONS: Early clinical improvement and mycologic clearance may help to predict treatment success with efinaconazole topical solution 10%.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(8):871-875. more