Cuttlefish Ink Melanin Encapsulated in Nanolipid Bubbles and Applied Through a Micro-Needling Procedure Easily Stains White Hair Facilitating Photoepilation

May 2016 | Volume 15 | Issue 5 | Original Article | 615 | Copyright © 2016

Mario A. Trelles MD PhD,a,* Patricia Almudever PhD,b,* Justo M. Alcolea MD,a
Julio Cortijo PhD,b Gabriel Serrano MD,c Inmaculada Expósito MD,c Josefina Royo MD,d
and Franck Marie Leclère MD PhDe

a Instituto Médico Vilafortuny, Cambrils, Tarragona, Spain
bDept. Farmacología, Universidad de Valencia, Spain
cSesderma S.L., Valencia, Spain
dInstituto Médico Láser, Madrid, Spain
eINSERM U1189, Lille University, Lille Cedex, France; Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery, Burn Surgery, and Sex
Reassignment Surgery, Bordeaux University Hospital and Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France
*Mario A. Trelles and Patricia Almudever have contributed equally to the writing of this study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Photothermolysis of unwanted hair depends on the presence of melanin in the hair follicle as the chromophore, but is not effective in patients with non-pigmented, melanin-sparse hair shafts and follicles. This split-scalp, double-blind study was to monitor the efficacy of melanin bound in nanosomes to inject exogenous melanin into the hair follicles thus potentiating successful photothermolysis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve patients, phototypes II-III, with white or very fair hair, were treated with a compound containing melanin encapsulated in nanosomes (Melaser®) together with a fluorescent marker. Two equal 6 cm² areas were marked on each side of the occiput of the subjects. The compound was applied to a randomly selected experimental side on each patient (area A), and a saline solution applied in the same manner to the contralateral control side (area B). Penetration of the melanin into the hair follicle was assessed using optical and fluorescence microscopy. Also, condition of hair structure was checked in vivo after standard laser settings used for epilation.
RESULTS: A slight transient erythema was observed in those areas where the compound was applied with some perifollicular edema. No such effects were noticed in those areas where saline solution was applied. No persistent complications such as scarring, hypo- or hyperpigmentation were observed in any of the experimental or control areas. Under fluorescence microscopy, the hair structures in the areas to which the compound had been applied showed a clear melanin deposit confirmed by the immunofluorescence intensity, which was highest at 2 hours after application. By optical microscopy, external melanin was deposited in hair follicles. Tests with standard settings for epilation were efficacious in damaging melanin-marked white hair.
CONCLUSION: This study strongly suggests the safety and efficacy of the application of nanosomes encapsulating melanin for the introduction of melanin into hair follicles. Changes noticed in the hair structure compromising its viability indicated potential application of this external melanin marker for white hair photoepilation.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):615-625.

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INTRODUCTION

The reasons for the removal of unwanted hair can be divided into four main categories: hypertrichosis, hirsutism, aesthetic reasons, or after reconstructive surgical procedures, the last including the removal of hairs on flaps, grafts, or after transexual surgery.1 Destroying hair follicles with lasers and other light sources has revolutionized the ability to eliminate unwanted hair. The following light sources have proven successful for a variety of skin types: ruby laser (694.3 nm), alexandrite laser (755 nm), diode laser (800-810 nm), neodymium:yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm), and different IPL devices emitting a broad spectrum from 550 to 1200 nm, depending on the cut-off filter.2-5

However, the endogenous chromophore melanin, which is the target for photoepilation, is not present in all types of hair. As a result, there is a lack of pigment in blond, gray, and white hair that led to the idea of external chromophore application.

Nanni et al were the first to report on topically applied carbon particles suspended in mineral oil, which were massaged into the hair follicles followed by treatment with a

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