The modality steadily gains popularity in aesthetic dermatology for correction of various skin conditions. Clinical use of the jet technology targets different anatomical structures that require absolute precision in the drug delivery: superficial dermis for correction of the age-related dermal atrophy,2,3,4 dermo-subcutaneous junction for remodeling of atrophic scars,5,6,7 or deep reticular dermis for skin laxity.8
Experiments on the skin-mimicking phantom and porcine skin verified that penetration is a function of the velocity and diameter of jet stream.9,10 It was clinically revealed that injection pressure is directly related to the jet’s depth of penetration8 and controls the level at which dispersion of the injected drug occurs (Figure 2). The ejection volume of the drug and the skin properties was histologically shown to have a direct effect on the side-wise distribution of the injected material.1
As the injection pressure and ejection volume are two parameters that can contribute to the treatment effectiveness, we conducted a series of anatomical experiments in order to investigate further the ability of jet-injection to deliver liquid materials into various dermal and subcutaneous structures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Substances, prescribed for clinical applications (NaCl, 20 mg/ml cross-linked Restylane hyaluronic acid, 20% glucose) were used as injection substances and mixed with anatomical color markers (Pintasol E-WL5 blue, E-WL41 oxide red, E-WL61 oxide green (Figure 3a). The dyes were added to mark the