When topically applied to SKs, the supraphysiologic concentration of hydrogen peroxide in Eskata overcomes the antioxidant defense systems leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species, direct oxidative damage, and eventually apoptosis. Its efficacy was highlighted in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials that compared the safety and efficacy of 40% hydrogen peroxide topical solution for the treatment of SKs.2 The two trials included 937 patients with 4 SKs who were randomized 1:1 to Eskata or vehicle. At day 106, significantly more Eskata patients achieved complete clearance on all 4 SKs (4% or 8% vs 0%) and 3 of 4 SKs (13% or 23% vs 0%). A post-hoc analysis found the clearance for SKs was higher for the face than other body sites (65% for face versus 46% for trunk and 38% for extremities). Dyspigmentation rates were also lowest among SKs treated on the face.3 The high response rates with low side effect profile for Eskata treatments on facial SKs are very important given how cosmetically concerning facial lesions tend to be for patients.
Before the FDA approval of Eskata, traditional treatment options included cryotherapy, curettage, and electrodessication. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy historically was the most common treatment option but had an increased risk of hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, especially in patients with skin of color. A recent ex-vivo study performed by Friedman et al. comparing the toxicologic impact of Eskata versus cryosurgery on Fitzpatrick V reconstituted human epidermal equivalents revealed that Eskata promotes greater melanocyte preservation than does cryosurgery.4 The current available data illustrates how Eskata provides the safest and most efficacious treatment for asymptomatic raised SKs. Its success in clinical practice will be highlighted in the following case studies.
- Rosso JQ. A closer look at seborrheic keratoses: Patient perspectives, clinical relevance, medical necessity, and implications for management. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017;10(3):16-25.
- Baumann LS, Blauvelt A, Draelos ZD, Kempers SE, Lupo MP, Schlessinger J, Smith SR, Wilson DC, Bradshaw M, Estes E, Shanler SD. Safety and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide topical solution, 40%(w/w) in patients with seborrheic keratoses: results from two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies (A-101-SEBK-301/302). J Acad Dermatol. 2018;79(5):869-877.
- Smith SR, Xu S, Estes E, Shanler SD. Anatomic site-specific treatment response with 40% hydrogen peroxide (w/w) topical formulation for raised seborrheic keratoses: pooled analysis of data from two phase 3 studies. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(10):1092-1098.
- Kao S, Kiss A, Efimova T, Friedman A. Ex vivo evaluation of cytotoxicity and melanocyte viability after A-101 hydrogen peroxide topical solution 40% or cryosurgery treatment in seborrheic keratosis lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;79(4):767-768.