Principles of Moisturizer Product Design

January 2019 | Volume 18 | Issue 1 | Supplement Individual Articles | 89 | Copyright © January 2019

Christine Lee PhD,a John Bajor PhD,a Teanoosh Moaddel PhD,a Vivek Subramanian PhD,a Jian-Ming Lee PhD,a Diana Marrero MS,a Sheila Rocha MS,a Michael D. Tharp MDB

aUnilever Research & Development, Trumbull, CT bPalm Harbor Dermatology, Tampa, FL


Christine Lee, John Bajor, Teanoosh Moaddel, Vivek Subramanian, Jian-Ming Lee, Diana Marrero, and Sheila Rocha are employees of Unilever R&D.


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  2. Kim BE, Leung, DYM. Significance of skin barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2018;10(3):207-215.
  3. Simpson EL, Chalmers JR, Hanifin JM, et al. Emollient enhancement of the skin barrier from birth offers effective atopic dermatitis prevention. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134:818–823.
  4. Jordan L, Baldwin H. Stratum corneum abnormalities and disease-affected skin: strategies for successful outcomes in inflammatory acne. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1170-1173.
  5. Vaseline™ Intensive Care Advanced Repair Unscented, Trumbull, CT: Unilever, 2017.
  6. Vaseline™ Intensive Care Deep Moisture Jelly Cream, Trumbull, CT: Unilever, 2017.
  7. Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Surbert C. Glycerol and the skin: holistic approach to its origin and function. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:23-34.
  8. Bisset DL, McBride JF. Skin conditioning with glycerol. J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1984;35:345-350.
  9. Rawlings A, Harding C, Watkinson A, et al. The effect of glycerol and humidity on desmosome degradation in stratum corneum. Arch Dermatol Res. 1995;287:457-464.
  10. Ghadially R, Halkier-Sorenson L, Elias P. Effects of petrolatum on stratum corneum structure and function. J Am Acad Derm. 1992;26,3:387-396.
  11. Van Smeden J, Bouwstra J. Stratum corneum lipids: their role for the skin barrier function in healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis patients. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2016;49:8-26.
  12. Berkers T, Van Dijk L, Absala S, et al. Topically applied fatty acids are elongated before incorporation in the stratum corneum lipid matrix in compromised skin. Exp Dermatol. 2017;26:36-43.
  13. Tanno O, Yukiko O. Kitamura N, et al. Effects of niacinamide on ceramide biosynthesis and differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes, 3rd ASCS Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 1997.
  14. Boissy RE, Minwalla L, Bissett DL, et al. Niacinamide inhibits transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes, 59th Annual Meeting American Academy of Dermatology, Washington, 2001.
  15. Hakozaki T, Matsubara A, Miyamoto K, et al, Topical niacinamide reduces human skin hyperpigmentation, 60th Annual Meeting American Academy of Dermatology, New Orleans, 2002.
  16. Mathapathi MS, Mallemalla P, Vora S, et al. Niacinamide leave-on formulation provides long-lasting protection against bacteria in vivo. Exp Dermatol. 2017;6:827-829.
  17. Andersen FA. Final report on the safety assessment of glycolic acid, ammonium, calcium, potassium, and sodium glycolates, methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl glycolates, and lactic acid, ammonium, calcium, potassium, sodium, and TEA-lactates, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and butyl lactates, and lauryl, myristyl, and cetyl lactates. Int J Toxicol. 1998;17:1-241.
  18. Berstein EF, Underhill CB, Lakkakorpi J, et al. Citric acid increases viable epidermis thickness and glycosaminoglycan content of sun-damaged skin. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23:689-694.
  19. Antoniou C, Kosmadaki MG, Stratigos AJ, et al. Photoaging: Prevention and topical treatments. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11:95–102.
  20. Ditre CM, Griffin TD, Murphy GF, et al. Effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on photoaged skin: A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34:187-195.
  21. Hanley K, Jiang Y, Crumrine D, et al. Activators of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR alpha and FXR accelerate development of the fetal epidermal permeability barrier. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:705-712.
  22. Hanley K, Komuves LG, Bass NM, et al. Fetal epidermal differentiation and barrier development in vivo is accelerated by nuclear hormone receptor activators. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:789-795.
  23. Komuves LG, Hanley K, Lefebvre AM, et al. Stimulation of PPAR alpha promotes epidermal keratinocyte differentiation in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;115:353-360.
  24. Komuves LG, Hanley K, Jiang Y, et al. Ligands and activators of nuclear hormone receptors regulate epidermal differentiation during fetal rat skin development. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111:429-433.
  25. Hanley K, Komuves LG, Ng DC, et al. Farnesol stimulates differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes via PPAR alpha. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:11484-11491.
  26. Mao-Qiang M, Fowler AJ, Schmuth M, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-beta/delta stimulates differentiation and lipid accumulation in keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:971-983.
  27. Moya-Camarena SY, Heuvel J, Blanchard SG, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid is a potent naturally occurring ligand and activator of PPAR(alpha). J Lipid Res 1990;40(8):1426-1433.
  28. Hawkins SS, Shingleton W, Adamus J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Role in skin health and appearance of photoaged skin. Book chapter in Textbook of Aging Skin (2010), Farage, Miller, Maibach, eds. Springer-Veriag Berlin Heidelberg.
  29. Hawkins SS, Feinberg C, Foy V, et al. Clinical and consumer-assessed improvement to photaged skin with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA): A novel cosmetic PPAR for anti-aging benefits. Proceedings of the 24th IFSCC Congress, 2006.
  30. Holleran WM, Uchida Y, Halkier-Sorensen L, et al. Structural and biochemical basis for the UVB-induced alterations in epidermal barrier function. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1997;13:117-128.


Christine Lee PhD Christine.lee@unilever.com