New Insight Into the Pathophysiology of Hair Loss Trigger a Paradigm Shift in the Treatment Approach

November 2017 | Volume 16 | Issue 11 | Supplement Individual Articles | 135 | Copyright © November 2017

Neil S. Sadick MD,a Valerie D. Callender MD,b Leon H. Kircik MD,c,d,e,f,g Sophia Kogan MDh

aCornell University, New York, NY bHoward University, Washington, DC cIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY; dIndiana School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; ePhysicians Skin Care, PLLC, Louisville, KY; fDermResearch, PLLC, Louisville, KY; gSkin Sciences, PLLC, Louisville, KY hNutraceutical Wellness Inc, New York, NY

REFERENCES

  1. Birch MP, Lashen H, Agarwal S, Messenger AG. Female pattern hair loss, sebum excretion and the end-organ response to androgens. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154(1):85-89.
  2. Cash TF, Price VH, Savin RC. Psychological effects of androgenetic alopecia on women: comparisons with balding men and with female control subjects. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29(4):568-575.
  3. El-Domyati M, Attia S, Saleh F, Abdel-Wahab H. Androgenetic alopecia in males: a histopathological and ultrastructural study. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2009;8(2):83-91.
  4. Hadshiew IM, Foitzik K, Arck PC, Paus R. Burden of hair loss: stress and the underestimated psychosocial impact of telogen effluvium and androgenetic alopecia. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123(3):455-457.
  5. Trueb RM. Molecular mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia. Exp Gerontol. 2002;37(8-9):981-990.
  6. Banka N, Bunagan MJ, Shapiro J. Pattern hair loss in men: diagnosis and medical treatment. Dermatol Clin. 2013;31(1):129-140.
  7. Qi J, Garza LA. An overview of alopecias. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014;4(3).
  8. Breitkopf T, Leung G, Yu M, Wang E, McElwee KJ. The basic science of hair biology: what are the causal mechanisms for the disordered hair follicle? Dermatol Clin. 2013;31(1):1-19.
  9. Mahe YF, Michelet JF, Billoni N, et al. Androgenetic alopecia and microinflammation. Int J Dermatol. 2000;39(8):576-584.
  10. Gatherwright J, Liu MT, Amirlak B, Gliniak C, Totonchi A, Guyuron B. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to male alopecia: a study of identical twins. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;131(5):794e-801e.
  11. Magro CM, Rossi A, Poe J, Manhas-Bhutani S, Sadick N. The role of inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1404-1411.
  12. Whiting DA. Diagnostic and predictive value of horizontal sections of scalp biopsy specimens in male pattern androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28(5 Pt 1):755-763.
  13. 1Jaworsky C, Kligman AM, Murphy GF. Characterization of inflammatory infiltrates in male pattern alopecia: implications for pathogenesis. Br J Dermatol. 1992;127(3):239-246.
  14. Inui S, Fukuzato Y, Nakajima T, Yoshikawa K, Itami S. Identification of androgen-inducible TGF-beta1 derived from dermal papilla cells as a key mediator in androgenetic alopecia. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2003;8(1):69-71.
  15. Sueki H, Stoudemayer T, Kligman AM, Murphy GF. Quantitative and ultrastructural analysis of inflammatory infiltrates in male pattern alopecia. Acta Derm Venereol. 1999;79(5):347-350.
  16. Deloche C, de Lacharriere O, Misciali C, et al. Histological features of peripilar signs associated with androgenetic alopecia. Arch Dermatol Res. 2004;295(10):422-428.
  17. Leiros GJ, Ceruti JM, Castellanos ML, Kusinsky AG, Balana ME. Androgens modify Wnt agonists/antagonists expression balance in dermal papilla cells preventing hair follicle stem cell differentiation in androgenetic alopecia. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;439:26-34.
  18. Kaya Erdogan H, Bulur I, Kocaturk E, Yildiz B, Saracoglu ZN, Alatas O. The role of oxidative stress in early-onset androgenetic alopecia. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2016.
  19. Prie BE, Iosif L, Tivig I, Stoian I, Giurcaneanu C. Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia. J Med Life. 2016;9(1):79-83.
  20. Peters EM, Liotiri S, Bodo E, et al. Probing the effects of stress mediators on the human hair follicle: substance P holds central position. Am J Pathol. 2007;171(6):1872-1886.
  21. Ito N, Ito T, Kromminga A, et al. Human hair follicles display a functional equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and synthesize cortisol. FASEB J. 2005;19(10):1332-1334.
  22. Ito T. Hair follicle is a target of stress hormone and autoimmune reactions. J Dermatol Sci. 2010;60(2):67-73.
  23. Naito A, Midorikawa T, Yoshino T, Ohdera M. Lipid peroxides induce early onset of catagen phase in murine hair cycles. Int J Mol Med. 2008;22(6):725-729.
  24. Zhang P, Kling RE, Ravuri SK, et al. A review of adipocyte lineage cells and dermal papilla cells in hair follicle regeneration. J Tissue Eng. 2014;5:2041731414556850.
  25. Enshell-Seijffers D, Lindon C, Kashiwagi M, Morgan BA. beta-catenin activity in the dermal papilla regulates morphogenesis and regeneration of hair. Dev Cell. 2010;18(4):633-642.
  26. Lee J, Tumbar T. Hairy tale of signaling in hair follicle development and cycling. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23(8):906-916.
  27. Sennett R, Rendl M. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23(8):917-927.
  28. Yang K, Wang X, Zhang H, et al. The evolving roles of canonical WNT signaling in stem cells and tumorigenesis: implications in targeted cancer therapies. Lab Invest. 2016;96(2):116-136.
  29. Strauss RE. New concepts in the physiology and growth of hair. Pa Med J. 1954;57(5):441-443.
  30. Christoph T, Muller-Rover S, Audring H, et al. The human hair follicle immune system: cellular composition and immune privilege. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142(5):862-873.
  31. Itami S, Inui S. Role of androgen in mesenchymal epithelial interactions in human hair follicle. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2005;10(3):209-211.
  32. Messenger AG, Sinclair R. Follicular miniaturization in female pattern hair loss: clinicopathological correlations. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155(5):926-930.
  33. de Berker D, Higgins CA, Jahoda C, Christiano AM. Biology of hair and nails. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology. Vol 1. 3 ed: Elsevier Health Sciences UK; 2012:1075-1092.
  34. Ramos PM, Brianezi G, Martins AC, da Silva MG, Marques ME, Miot HA. Apoptosis in follicles of individuals with female pattern hair loss is associated with perifollicular microinflammation. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2016;38(6):651-654.
  35. Trueb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009;1(1):6-14.
  36. Trueb RM. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair. Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(2):121-129.
  37. Liu N, Wang LH, Guo LL, et al. Chronic restraint stress inhibits hair growth via substance P mediated by reactive oxygen species in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61574.
  38. Shin H, Yoo HG, Inui S, et al. Induction of transforming growth factor-beta 1 by androgen is mediated by reactive oxygen species in hair follicle dermal papilla cells. BMB Rep. 2013;46(9):460-464.
  39. Oon HH, Lee JS. Treatment of pseudofolliculitis in trichotillomania improves outcome. Int J Trichology. 2011;3(2):92-95.
  40. Beoy LA, Woei WJ, Hay YK. Effects of tocotrienol supplementation on hair growth in human volunteers. Trop Life Sci Res. 2010;21(2):91-99.
  41. Messenger AG. Hair through the female life cycle. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165 Suppl 3:2-6.
  42. Randall VA. Hormonal regulation of hair follicles exhibits a biological paradox. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2007;18(2):274-285.
  43. Yoo HG, Kim JS, Lee SR, et al. Perifollicular fibrosis: pathogenetic role in androgenetic alopecia. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29(6):1246-1250.
  44. Dey-Rao R, Sinha AA. A genomic approach to susceptibility and pathogenesis leads to identifying potential novel therapeutic targets in androgenetic alopecia. Genomics. 2017;109(3-4):165-176.
  45. Hagenaars SP, Hill WD, Harris SE, et al. Genetic prediction of male pattern baldness. PLoS Genet. 2017;13(2):e1006594.
  46. Heilmann-Heimbach S, Herold C, Hochfeld LM, et al. Meta-analysis identifies novel risk loci and yields systematic insights into the biology of male-pattern baldness. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14694.
  47. Trueb RM. Is androgenetic alopecia a photoaggravated dermatosis? Dermatology. 2003;207(4):343-348.
  48. Gatherwright J, Liu MT, Gliniak C, Totonchi A, Guyuron B. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to female alopecia: a study of identical twins. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;130(6):1219-1226.
  49. Furness DN. Molecular basis of hair cell loss. Cell Tissue Res. 2015;361(1):387-399.
  50. Trueb RM. The impact of oxidative stress on hair. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2015;37 Suppl 2:25-30.
  51. Fernandez E, Martinez-Teipel B, Armengol R, Barba C, Coderch L. Efficacy of antioxidants in human hair. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2012;117:146-156.
  52. Paus R, Theoharides TC, Arck PC. Neuroimmunoendocrine circuitry of the ‘brain-skin connection’. Trends Immunol. 2006;27(1):32-39.
  53. Baluk P. Neurogenic inflammation in skin and airways. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1997;2(1):76-81.
  54. Peters EM, Arck PC, Paus R. Hair growth inhibition by psychoemotional stress: a mouse model for neural mechanisms in hair growth control. Exp Dermatol. 2006;15(1):1-13.
  55. Arck PC, Handjiski B, Peters EM, et al. Stress inhibits hair growth in mice by induction of premature catagen development and deleterious perifollicular inflammatory events via neuropeptide substance P-dependent pathways. Am J Pathol. 2003;162(3):803-814.
  56. Thom E. Stress and the hair growth cycle: Cortisol-induced hair growth disruption. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):1001-1004.
  57. Schmidt JB. Hormonal basis of male and female androgenic alopecia: clinical relevance. Skin Pharmacol. 1994;7(1-2):61-66.
  58. Peters EMJ, Muller Y, Snaga W, et al. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress. PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0175904.
  59. Contreras-Jurado C, Lorz C, Garcia-Serrano L, Paramio JM, Aranda A. Thyroid hormone signaling controls hair follicle stem cell function. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26(7):1263-1272.
  60. Ablon G. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2016;15(4):358-366.
  61. Afifi L, Maranda EL, Zarei M, et al. Low-level laser therapy as a treatment for androgenetic alopecia. Lasers Surg Med. 2017;49(1):27-39.
  62. Ferneini EM, Beauvais D, Castiglione C, Ferneini MV. Platelet-rich plasma in androgenic alopecia: Indications, technique, and potential benefits. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016.

AUTHOR CORRESPONDENCE

Sophia Kogan MD sophia@nutrafol.com