The Biology, Structure, and Function of Eyebrow Hair

January 2014 | Volume 13 | Issue 1 | Supplement Individual Articles | 12 | Copyright © January 2014

Jennifer V. Nguyen MD

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

  1. Cotsarelis G. Gene expression profiling gets to the root of human hair follicle stem cells. J Clin Invest. 2006;116(1):19-22.
  2. Cotsarelis G, Sun TT, Lavker RM. Label-retaining cells reside in the bulge area of pilosebaceous unit: implications for follicular stem cells, hair cycle, and skin carcinogenesis. Cell. 1990;61(7):1329-1337.
  3. Ito M, Liu Y, Yang Z, et al. Stem cells in the hair follicle bulge contribute to wound repair but not to homeostasis of the epidermis. Nat Med. 2005;11(12):1351-1354.
  4. Millar SE. Molecular mechanisms regulating hair follicle development. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118(2):216-225.
  5. Zhang Y, Tomann P, Andl T, et al. Reciprocal requirements for EDA/EDAR/NFkappaB and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways in hair follicle induction. Dev Cell. 2009;17(1):49-61.
  6. Hardy MH. The secret life of the hair follicle. Trends Genet. 1992;8(2):55-61.
  7. Myung PS, Takeo M, Ito M, Atit RP. Epithelial Wnt ligand secretion is required for adult hair follicle growth and regeneration. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(1):31-41.
  8. Myung P, Andl T, Ito M. Defining the hair follicle stem cell (Part I). J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36(9):1031-1034.
  9. Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds. Dermatology. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier, 2008.
  10. Ito M, Kizawa K, Hamada K, Cotsarelis G. Hair follicle stem cells in the lower bulge form the secondary germ, a biochemically distinct but functionally equivalent progenitor cell population, at the termination of catagen. Differentiation. 2004;72(9-10):548-557.
  11. Myung P, Ito M. Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2012;122(2):448-454.
  12. Buhl AE, Conrad SJ, Waldon DJ, Brunden MN. Potassium channel conductance as a control mechanism in hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;101(suppl 1):s148-s152.
  13. Lachgar S, Charveron M, Gall Y, Bonafe JL. Minoxidil upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human hair dermal papilla cells. Br J Dermatol. 1998;138(3):407-411.
  14. Han JH, Kwon OS, Chung JH, et al. Effect of minoxidil on proliferation and apoptosis in dermal papilla cells of human hair follicle. J Dermatol Sci. 2004;34(2):91-98.
  15. Law SK. Bimatoprost in the treatment of eyelash hypotrichosis. Clin Ophthalmol. 2010;4:349-358.
  16. Schweiger ES, Pinchover L, Bernstein RM. Topical bimatoprost for the treatment of eyebrow hypotrichosis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(1):106-108.
  17. Sinclair R, Grossman KL, Kvedar JC. Chapter 9: Anagen hair loss. In: Olsen EA, ed. Disorders of Hair Growth: Diagnosis and Treatment. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Publishing, 2003:275-302.
  18. Tosti A, Pazzaglia M. Drug reactions affecting hair: diagnosis. Dermatol Clin. 2007;25(2):223-231.
  19. Boussofara L, Ghannouchi N, Ghariani N, Denguezli M, Belajouza C, Nouira R. Netherton’s syndrome: the importance of eyebrow hair. Dermatol Online J. 2007;13(3):21.


Jennifer V. Nguyen