Non-Sarcoidal, Non-Tuberculoid Granuloma in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

April 2006 | Volume 5 | Issue 4 | Case Reports | 370 | Copyright © April 2006

M.B. Abdel-Naser, U. Wollina MD, M.A. El Hefnawi, M.A. Habib, M. El Okby

Abstract
Sarcoidal (non-caseating) or tuberculoid granulomas are cutaneous manifestations of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). In this case report, we describe a patient with CVID but with non-sarcoidal, non-tuberculoid granuloma. The 29- year-old Egyptian male patient presented with a vitiliginous patch on the chin of 1 year duration and multiple recurrent warts on the hands and feet of 8 years duration. He is a known case of CVID with chronic diarrhea, recurrent otitis media, pneumonia, purulent conjunctivitis, septic arthritis, hepato-splenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. In addition, he had evidence of multiple non-tender subcutaneous nodules predominantly juxta-articular and recurrent rheumatoid-like arthritis. The skin overlying the nodules was either normal or slightly erythematous. Laboratory findings revealed markedly reduced serum immunoglobulins (IgG 3.4, n=7.2-16.9 g/l; IgA 0.1, n=0.69-3.82 g/l and IgM 0.1, n=0.63-2.77 g/l) and deficient T cell function. Histopathologic examination of a skin nodule showed well demarcated areas of fibrinoid degeneration of collagen that stain homogeneously and are surrounded by histiocytes in a palisading arrangement, suggestive of granuloma annulare. No microorganisms could be detected. Serology for rheumatoid factor and HIV infection has been persistently negative. Although most infections, including common warts responded well to intravenous immunoglobulin replacement thrapy (12 g/i.v., every 2 weeks) and oral board spectrum antibiotic therapy, the subcutaneous nodules persisted. The vitiliginous patch responded favorably and disappeared within 24 local PUVA sessions. Since skin nodules are asymptomatic, no further treatment was given.