Volume 17 | Issue 1
A Multi-Center, Open-Label, Prospective Study of Cannula Injection of Small-Particle Hyaluronic Acid Plus Lidocaine (SPHAL) for Lip Augmentation
Raj Chopra MD FACS,a Miles Graivier MD FACS,b Sabrina Fabi MD FAAD FAACS,c Mark Nestor MD PhD,d Patricia Meuse PhD,e Jay Mashburn PhDf|
BACKGROUND: The use of blunt-tipped microcannulas for injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler in the lip and perioral area has gained popularity as they provide important safety-related advantages compared to traditional hypodermic needles. This study was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness associated with the use of a blunt-tipped microcannula for lip augmentation and correction of perioral rhytids using a small-particle, hyaluronic acid gel plus lidocaine (SPHAL).
METHODS: A multi-center, open-label, prospective, study enrolled 60 subjects. Subjects reported injection-related events (IREs) for 2 weeks posttreatment via diary. Adverse events (AEs) were collected throughout the study. Secondary assessments at 4 and 12 weeks posttreatment included treating investigator- and subject-reported improvement in lip fullness using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) and investigator-assessed improvement in lip fullness using the Medicis Lip Fullness Scale (MLFS).
RESULTS: Sixty subjects were enrolled and treated with a mean total volume (ie, both lips and optional perioral rhytids) of 2.2 mL. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) reported and assessed as related to the product and/or injection procedure included injection site swelling (13.3%), injection site bruising (6.7%), and injection site pain (1.7%). These were typically mild and transient in nature. No serious AEs (SAEs) were reported. Following treatment, clinically significant improvement using the GAIS and MLFS was demonstrated throughout the study (GAIS improvement at week 12 for both lips: investigator-reported, 98.0%; subject-reported, 84.3%; MLFS improvement at week 12: investigator-reported, 96.1%).
CONCLUSION: SPHAL was well tolerated and effective following injection with a blunt-tipped microcannula. No unanticipated safety concerns were identified in the study population.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):10-16.
Terrence C. Keaney MD FAAD,a,* Robert Anolik MD,b André Braz MD,c Michael Eidelman MD,d Joseph A. Eviatar MD FACS,e Jeremy B. Green MD FAAD,f Derek H. Jones MD,g Vic A. Narurkar MD,h Anthony M. Rossi MD FAAD,i and Conor J. Gallagher PhDj|
BACKGROUND: The number of nonsurgical aesthetic procedures performed in men is growing rapidly. However, there are limited data on treatment principles and goals for the male aesthetic patient.
OBJECTIVE: To review the objective data available on male aging and aesthetics and to synthesize with expert opinion on treatment considerations specific to male patients.
METHODS: Expert advisors met to discuss anatomical differences in male versus female facial anatomy related to aging, facial treatment preferences in aesthetically oriented men, and current dosing data for facial injectable treatments in male versus female patients.
RESULTS: Symmetry, averageness, sexual dimorphism, and youthfulness are generally accepted as factors that contribute to the perception of attractiveness. There are differences between men and women in facial anatomy, concepts of attractiveness in the context of masculinity and femininity, and treatment objectives. A communication gap exists for men, as evidenced by the lack of information available online or by word of mouth about injectable treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: Approaches to aesthetic consultation and treatment should differ between men and women based on the fundamental dissimilarities between the sexes. Educating men about available aesthetic treatments and about the safety and side effects associated with each treatment, as well as addressing concerns about their treatment results looking natural, are key considerations.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):19-28.
Loeb Habbema MD,a Jennifer C. Tang MD,b Gerhard Sattler MD,c C. William Hanke MDb|
The neck is one of the most common areas treated by liposuction. Neck liposuction decreases fat volume, causes skin contraction, and restores a more youthful appearance. We present a large case series (n=987) performed by three dermatologic surgeons. Five patients developed temporary post-operative marginal mandibular dysfunction, one patient had submandibular gland ptosis and one patient had arterial bleeding. Seroma, skin necrosis, scarring, and hyperpigmentation did not occur following neck liposuction. Neck liposuction performed with tumescent local anesthesia is a safe procedure associated with a low incidence of nerve injury and other complications.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):30-34.
Vic A. Narurkar MD,a Tina S. Alster MD,b Eric F Bernstein MD,c Tina J. Lin PharmD,d and Anya Loncaric MSe|
BACKGROUND: Fractional photothermolysis (FP) is a popular treatment option for photodamaged skin and addresses shortcomings of ablative skin resurfacing and nonablative dermal remodeling. Previous studies have demonstrated that FP using the 1550nm wavelength has led to improvement of ultrastructural changes and clinical effects associated with photodamaged skin in the deeper dermal structures, while treatment with the 1927nm wavelength has shown clinical effects in the superficial dermis. Both wavelengths produce precise microscopic treatment zones (MTZs) in the skin. The two wavelengths used in combination may optimize the delivery of fractional nonablative resurfacing intended for dermal and epidermal coagulation of photodamage skin.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 1550/1927 Laser System (Fraxel Dual, Solta), using both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths in combination for treatment of facial and non-facial photodamage.
METHODS: Prospective, multi-center, post-market study in subjects with clinically identifiable photodamage (N=35) (Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV). Both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths were used at each treatment visit. Investigator assessment of the affected area(s) occurred at one week, one month and 3 months after a series of up to four treatments. Severity of adverse events (AEs) were assessed using a 4-point scale (where 0=none and 3=marked). Assessments included erythema, edema, hyperkeratosis, hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, scarring, itchiness, dryness, and flaking. Severity of photoaging, fine and coarse wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, sallowness, and tactile roughness at baseline was assessed using the same scale. Investigators and subjects assessed overall appearance of photodamage and pigmentation based on a 5-point quartile improvement scale at all follow-up visits (where 0=no improvement and 4=very significant improvement [76%-100%]).
RESULTS: There was a positive treatment effect at all study visits, with moderate improvement (average reduction in severity of 21%-43%) observed 3-months after final treatment. Greatest reduction in severity of other benefit areas was at the 3-month follow-up visit, with a 21% and 30% decrease in severity in fine wrinkling and tactile roughness. No AEs or serious AEs were reported. Pain sensation during treatment was tolerable. Anticipated moderate erythema (mean score 1.6±0.5) and mild edema (mean score 0.8±0.7) were transient and resolved within 7-10 days. Anticipated and transient mild dryness (52% of subjects) and flaking (30%) were reported at the 1-week follow-up. There were no incidences of hyperkeratosis, scarring, or itchiness.
CONCLUSION: Treatments using both wavelengths associated with the combined 1550/1927 Laser System were well tolerated with limited, transient anticipated side effects and no serious AEs. Clinical efficacy in the appearance of photodamage and pigmentation was greatest following a series of up to 3 treatments.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):41-46.
A Randomized Study to Assess the Efficacy of Skin Rejuvenation Therapy in Combination With Neurotoxin and Full Facial Filler Treatments
Steven H. Dayan MD FACS,a,b,c Thuy-Van T. Ho MD,c Jonathan T. Bacos BA,a,d Nimit D. Gandhi MD,a Arjun Kalbag PhD,a Selika Gutierrez-Borst MS RNa,b|
BACKGROUND: Although non-surgical treatment options for facial rejuvenation are well-established, the literature remains limited regarding the combined effect of topical skin treatment with filler and neurotoxin on patient appearance and satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of a skin rejuvenation therapy in combination with neurotoxin or hyaluronic acid filler injection on skin quality and general aesthetic improvement as well as on short-term self-esteem.
METHODS: From 2015 to 2017, 20 female patients were enrolled in our study and were randomized into two groups. Patients in Group A used a basic skin care regimen following hyaluronic acid filler and neurotoxin treatment, while those in Group B utilized the Nu-Derm® skin care system (Obagi Medical Products, Inc) afterwards. Each subject and the principal investigator filled out various assessments pre- and post-treatment to evaluate for change in skin quality (Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Assessment Scale [FWAS] and Skin Quality Assessments [SQA]), aesthetic appearance (Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale [GAIS]), patient satisfaction (Subject Satisfaction Assessment [SSA]), and self-esteem (State Self-Esteem Scale [SSES]).
RESULTS: Subjects in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvement in skin quality, as illustrated in the change in FWAS and SQA scores, at 12 weeks after initiating full facial rejuvenation treatment. However, there were no significant differences in FWAS and SQA ratings between the treatment groups. Regarding aesthetic appearance, a statistically significant difference in GAIS scores between Groups A and B was observed at 6 weeks after treatment only. In evaluating for patient satisfaction and self-esteem, there were no significant differences in SSA and SSES ratings over time within each treatment group or between the treatment groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that facial rejuvenation therapy involving hyaluronic acid filler and neurotoxin injections combined with a topical skin treatment regimen leads to improvement in skin quality and aesthetic appearance as well as to patient satisfaction. Additional larger studies are needed to better delineate the most ideal combination facial rejuvenation therapy for optimizing patient appearance and satisfaction.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):48-54.
Penelope J. Kallis BS BA,a Adam J. Friedman MD,b and Hadar Lev-Tov MD MASa|
Wounds that exhibit delayed healing have a tremendous impact on health care expenditures and place patients at serious risk for severe complications including death. The healing of a chronic wound requires the restoration of multiple factors that normally work in concert to repair the damaged skin barrier. Skin substitutes have shown great promise for use as adjunctive therapies for refractory wounds by providing cells, soluble mediators, and extracellular matrix materials needed to stimulate healing. There are a growing variety of skin substitutes available on the market with many indications, and appropriate selection can impact healing outcomes. Skin substitutes can be broadly divided into cellular and acellular devices, yet within these categories, each product has its own unique composition and mechanism for promoting healing. Here we summarize the characteristics and indications of cellular and acellular matrices commonly used in wound care with the most evidence supported by randomized control trials and prospective studies. This review aims to provide dermatologists and other wound care clinicians with a helpful guide on how to approach skin substitutes, from preparing the wound bed for application, to making the proper selection for patients’ individual wounds.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):57-64.
A Multicenter, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Split-Face Study of the Safety and Efficacy of a Novel Hyaluronic Acid Gel for the Correction of Nasolabial Folds
Michael H. Gold MD,a Leslie Stafford Baumann MD CPI,b Clifford P. Clark III MD,c and Joel Schlessinger MDd|BACKGROUND: Injectable hyaluronic acid is frequently used to correct volume loss in nasolabial folds. OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of a novel hyaluronic acid gel to a non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (Comparator) gel for the correction of nasolabial folds (NLF). METHODS: Qualified subjects had NLF with a Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) score of 3 or 4 (moderate or severe). NLFs were treated with Test Product on one side of the face and Comparator on the other side of the face (facial side randomly assigned). Improvement from baseline was evaluated at weeks 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. The primary study endpoint was the mean change in WSRS score from baseline to week 24. RESULTS: The mean changes in WSRS score from baseline were 1.02 ±0.689 for Test Product and 0.91±0.762 for Comparator. The mean difference in change from baseline in WSRS scoring (Comparator minus Test Product) at week 24 was -0.11 (-0.225-0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]). The upper boundary (0.001) of the 95% CI was less than the prespecified non-inferiority limit of 0.50, indicating that the Test Product was non-inferior to the Comparator. No subject discontinued the study due to adverse events. CONCLUSION: The Test Product is safe and non-inferior to the Comparator for the correction of nasolabial folds. The Test Product was associated with less swelling, pain, and overall severity of treatment-emergent adverse events than the Comparator.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):66-73.
Alexis Lyons MD MS,a Jillian Roy RN,a Jennifer Herrmann MD FAAD,a,b,c Lisa Chipps MD FAAD,a,c|OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of a novel fractional microneedling radiofrequency device to improve the appearance of rhytides and skin laxity of the décolletage. METHODS: Twelve subjects received a total of three fractional microneedling radiofrequency treatments with Endymed Intensif (EndyMed Ltd., Cesarea, Israel) at least three weeks apart. Primary outcome measure was clinical efficacy quantified by a patient survey to assess treatment satisfaction as well as a physician Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS). Photos were taken before every treatment and at a follow-up appointment. RESULTS: Assessments by two board-certified dermatologists revealed an overall improvement in 67% of patients. Seventy percent of subjects rated their post-treatment skin laxity and rhytides as improved, while 60% of patients rated their skin texture as improved. Eighty percent of subjects were at least slightly satisfied with their treatment. Forty percent of subjects would recommend this treatment to others. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects in this study demonstrated an overall improvement in décolletage appearance in regard to skin tightening, wrinkles, and skin texture suggested by overall patient satisfaction (80%) and physician-rated GAIS improvement (67%). This study suggests that fractional microneedling radiofrequency devices are a safe and efficacious way to improve overall décolletage appearance with little down time.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):74-76.
The Use of an Over-the-Counter Hand Cream With Sweet Almond Oil for the Treatment of Hand Dermatitis
Joshua A. Zeichner MD,a Diane Berson MD,b Kavita Mariwalla MD,c and Angela Donald ND MScd|Hand dermatitis is estimated to affect greater than 15% of the general population. Childhood eczema, frequent hand washing, and occupational exposure to chemicals are predisposing factors. Hand dermatitis treatment involves both prevention of outbreaks and treatment of active disease. Moisturizers are essential to protect the skin from the environment, enhance hydration, and repair the skin barrier. They have been shown in large studies to prevent occupational related breakouts. Natural oils are commonly used in moisturizers for their moisturizing and emollient properties. Sweet almond oil is an oil that contains high levels of fatty acids and has been used for centuries to treat skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. In this study, a moisturizer with 7% sweet almond oil and 2% colloidal oatmeal was found to be both safe and effective in treating patients with moderate to severe hand dermatitis.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):78-82.
Injectable Non-Animal Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid as a Skin Quality Booster: An Expert Panel Consensus
Magda Belmontesi MD,a Francesca De Angelis MD PhD,b Carlo Di Gregorio MD PhD,c Ivano Iozzo MD,d Marina Romagnoli MD,e Giovanni Salti MD,f and Matteo Tretti Clementoni MDg|Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used extensively in aesthetic medicine thanks to its documented role in skin rejuvenation. The specific applications of HA-based products are not always fully acknowledged due to a lack of consistent recommendations. In this paper, the authors have summarized available published data on the range of applications of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA®) gel skin boosters (NSBs) in several anatomical areas and types of patient, as well as their own recommendations. Overall, the panel agreed that a standard initial protocol treatment of up to 3 sessions, followed by a maintenance schedule, would allow patients to improve and then preserve skin quality over time. Indeed, distinct effects are evident after the first session, but a progressive enhancement of skin texture is detectable for up to 12 months after repeat treatment at 4 to 6 month intervals. Moreover, the authors agreed that the NASHA gel, reaching the dermis, is able to reestablish a greater degree of hydration and stimulate collagen that, in turn, restores the volume and density of the skin. Thus, a strong consensus was reached that NSB procedures are minimally invasive, safe, and effective, and designed to improve skin texture and maintain skin quality.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):83-88.
Patrick Micheels MDa and Lisa Goodman MDb|BACKGROUND: This paper sought to compare calculated injection depth data with published report claims concerning intradermal therapy and skin rejuvenation of the face, hands, neck, and décolleté. OBJECTIVE: A mathematical formula was employed to assess the injection depth, and data from literature were retrieved and compared with the calculated figures to determine whether the claims about the injection depth proved correct. METHODS: Based on a study by Della Volpe et al., involving 140 skin residues adapted for plastic surgery, we have calculated injection depths from published reports on intradermal therapy and skin rejuvenation while comparing these figures with the published injection depth claims. RESULTS: Most injections were not performed at the claimed depth, with over 70% of them carried out in the fat layer, thus, the hypodermis. This is not the recommended depth for a refined injection technique in the intradermal therapy field. CONCLUSION: Whilst examining our study results, two different possibilities come to mind. We must either: 1) review and correct the existing histological classification; and/or 2) better learn to correctly inject in the superficial-dermis, mid-dermis, and deep-dermis. In other words, a perfect control over the needle penetration angle and implanted part appears urgently required.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):89-96.
Pivotal Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Oxymetazoline Cream 1.0% for the Treatment of Persistent Facial Erythema Associated With Rosacea: Findings from the First REVEAL Trial
Leon H. Kircik MD,a Janet DuBois MD,b Zoe Diana Draelos MD,c Philip Werschler MD FAAD FAACS,d Kimberly Grande MD,e Fran E. Cook-Bolden MD,f Emily Weng ScD MBA,g David R. Berk MD,g and Gurpreet Ahluwalia PhDg|An unmet need exists for a safe, tolerable, effective treatment for moderate to severe persistent facial erythema in patients with rosacea. This pivotal phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of topical oxymetazoline in patients with facial erythema associated with moderate to severe rosacea. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with oxymetazoline hydrochloride cream 1.0% or vehicle applied once daily for 29 days, and were followed for 28 days posttreatment. The primary efficacy outcome was having at least a 2-grade decrease from baseline on both the Clinician Erythema Assessment (CEA) and the Subject Self-Assessment for rosacea facial redness (SSA) scales (composite success) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours postdose on day 29. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and posttreatment worsening of erythema (composite CEA/SSA increase of 1-grade severity from baseline; rebound effect). A total of 440 patients (mean age, 49.5 years; 78.9% females) were randomized (oxymetazoline, n=222; vehicle, n=218); most had moderate erythema. On day 29, significantly greater proportions of oxymetazoline recipients achieved the primary efficacy outcome at each time point (P less than 0.02) and overall (P less than 0.001) compared with vehicle recipients. The incidence of discontinuation due to TEAEs was low in both groups (oxymetazoline group, 1.8%; vehicle group, 0.5%). The most common TEAEs reported during the entire study period were application-site dermatitis, application-site erythema, and headache in the oxymetazoline group (1.4% each), and headache (0.9%) in the vehicle group. Following cessation of treatment, low proportions of patients experienced rebound effect (oxymetazoline group, 2.2%; vehicle group, 1.1%). Oxymetazoline applied to the face once daily for 29 days was effective, safe, and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe persistent facial erythema of rosacea.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):97-105.
Lawrence S. Bass MD FACSa and Sean T. Doherty MD FACSb|BACKGROUND: Changes in temperature are known to produce apoptosis in adipocytes. This study examines the use of a non-invasive treatment that applies 1060 nm laser energy transcutaneously to hyperthermically induce disruption of fat cells in the abdomen. METHODS: Thirty-five subjects received application of 1060 nm laser on the abdomen for fat reduction. Ultrasound images and high-resolution two-dimensional photography were recorded at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks post treatment. Subjects maintained a stable diet and exercise routine throughout the course of the study. Weight was recorded at baseline and each follow-up visit. Three board certified dermatologists were trained as blinded evaluators and tasked with identifying before and after photographs from randomized, paired baseline, and 12-week photographs. Ultrasound images were used to measure the fat thickness change from baseline at 6 and 12 weeks. Level of patient satisfaction was graded at 12 weeks using a 6 point Likert scale. REULTS: 23% of subjects were Fitzpatrick IV-VI. Blinded evaluators correctly identified the post-treatment photograph 95% of the time (88%, 97%, and 100%). Mean reduction in fat layer thickness from baseline was statistically significant (P less than 0.001) at both 6 weeks (1.5 +/-1.23 mm) and 12 weeks (2.65 +/-1.41 mm). Mean weight change was +0.1 lb. Side effects were mild to moderate including edema, tenderness, and induration mostly resolving within 1-3 weeks post treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: 1060 nm based laser treatment can consistently reduce the fat contour in the abdomen with an excellent safety profile in all skin types. The study met all three of its prospectively defined endpoints of success.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):106-112.
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James M. Spencer MD MS,a Julianna Accioly MA,a Neal Kitchen PhDb|Melasma remains a troubling problem for physicans and patients alike. It is a chronic irregular, symmetric hyperpigmentation seen most often in women. In this study, a unique combination of ingredients with non-irritating properties was tested for treatment of melasma. In a double blind, placebo controlled, split face trial, 17 patients with melasma were treated on one half of the face, left or right, while the other received placebo control. All patients used sunscreen on both sides. Measurement with a colorimeter (Mexameter) was taken at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily use. The active side showed an objective decrease in hyperpigmentation of 14.60% while the control side showed a decrease of 9.82%. We conclude the product provides a non-irritating effective therapy for melasma.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):113-115.
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Hao Ouyang PhD,a Karen Meyer BS,a Prithwiraj Maitra PhD,a Susan Daly PhD,a Ryan M. Svoboda MD,b Aaron S. Farberg MD,c Darrell S. Rigel MDd|Background: Studies show that sunscreen under real-life conditions is often not reapplied and/or applied insufficiently. This study investigated the durability of 2 current sunscreens with different SPF protection over an 8-hour period under simulated real-life conditions. Methods: Participants (n=24) were randomized into two study groups utilizing either 2 mg/cm2 (FDA testing concentration) or 1 mg/cm2 (real-life application levels) of sunscreen. Two current SPF 15 and 70 sunscreens were applied to test spots on each participant’s back. SPF values were obtained at baseline, 3.5, and 8 hours after initial application, during which subjects completed 30 minutes of moderate exercise followed by 80 minutes of water exposure. Results: Participants in both dose study groups revealed only a 15–40% overall decrease in their SPF protection 8 hours after application. The study group that received half the FDA test concentration of sunscreen achieved approximately half or less the labeled SPF. At 8 hours, the test sites that received SPF 70 maintained an average SPF greater than 64 (2 mg/cm2 application) and 26 (1 mg/cm2 application). Similarly, the SPF 15 product test sites revealed an in vivo protection of 13 (2 mg/cm2) and 7 (1 mg/cm2). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that current sunscreens may be durable on skin even following significant exercise and water exposure, suggesting that reapplication intervals may be longer than currently recommended. In addition, the higher SPF sunscreen maintained a skin cancer–protective level of SPF following extended use.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):116-117.
Geraldine Cheyana Ranasinghe BS and Adam J. Friedman MD|BACKGROUND: Eruptive sebaceous hyperplasia is a rare and poorly understood consequence of immunosuppression, most commonly with cyclosporine, following organ transplantation. To date, there have been no reports documenting eruptive sebaceous hyperplasia associated with the utilization of immunosuppression outside of this clinical scenario. OBSERVATION: A 43-year-old Caucasian male with a significant history for Crohn’s disease presented with the sudden appearance of multiple asymptomatic growths now present for several weeks. They were first noted two weeks following the initiation of a slow prednisone taper prescribed for a recent exacerbation of Crohn’s disease. Skin examination revealed multiple 1-3mm, soft, skin colored to yellowish, dome-shaped, umbilicated papules on the forehead and the bilateral lateral/malar cheeks, clinically suggestive and confirmed histologically as sebaceous hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of eruptive sebaceous hyperplasia secondary to the use of prednisone in a patient with Crohn’s disease. This case brings awareness to the unique side effect of prednisone induced sebaceous hyperplasia, and demonstrates the importance of educating patients with Crohn’s disease of this potential side effect when prescribing this medication.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):118-120.