Ramin Fathi MD1 and Joel L. Cohen MD FAAD1,2,3
Hand rejuvenation is an increasingly requested procedure in dermatology. Dorsal hand augmentation with soft tissue filler is one aspect
of hand rejuvenation. Calcium hydroxyapatite is FDA approved for this purpose, while at the present time other filler products are utilized but are considered off-label for dorsal hand augmentation. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, the general and filler-specific
techniques commonly employed, and potential complications that may arise.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):809-815.
Melissa B. Hoffman MD,a Rachna A. Bhandari MD,b and Animesh A. Sinha MD PhDc
Rituximab, an anti CD20 monoclonal antibody leading to transitory B cell depletion, is used to treat a wide variety of immune system tumors and immune mediated diseases. While most of data supporting the efficacy and safety of rituximab in treating autoimmune patients is focused on the adult population, the utilization of rituximab (RTX) for a wide range of pediatric conditions is also increasing. While there are a number of published case reports, a comprehensive review of the various uses for rituximab in pediatric dermatology is lacking. To better assess the therapeutic role of rituximab in the management of skin disease in children, here we comprehensively document reported cases of use including details regarding specific treatment regimens, efficacy and safety profile. Evaluation of the data supports consideration for the initiation of rituximab at early time points in the treatment ladder, before certain diseases become refractory to conventional treatment.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):821-829.
Viral M. Patel BS, Robert A. Schwartz MD MPH DSc (Hon), and W. Clark Lambert MD PhD
Dermatologic drugs should be employed with caution in women of childbearing age who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Topical drugs have little systemic absorption. Therefore, they are deemed safer than oral or parenteral agents and less likely to harm the fetus. However, their safety profile must be assessed cautiously, as there is limited available data. In this article, we aggregate human and animal studies and provide recommendations on using topical dermatologic medications in pregnancy.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):830-834.
Anjana Ray PhD,a,* Breanne Mordorski BA,b,* Angelo Landriscina BA,b Jamie Rosen BA,b Joshua Nosanchuk MD,a,c and Adam Friedman MDd
Shaving is an ubiquitous practice, and cutaneous irritation and inflammation are common sequelae, which may be worsened by underlying skin conditions or poor hair removal techniques. Moisturizing shaving creams and aftershaves are available to help maintain or restore the epidermal barrier; however, many continue to suffer from post-shave redness, itching, and pain. To reduce post-shave inflammation, some products have included botanical and other natural ingredients, which are often favored by consumers. We evaluated Bensal HP, an ointment containing 3% oak bark extract, 3% salicylic acid, and 6% benzoic acid, which has documented anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, in a murine model of shave irritation to determine whether it would be useful in this clinical setting. Shaving dermatitis was simulated using a depilatory agent and electric clippers, and the shaved area was photographed and treated with Bensal HP daily for four days. Compared to untreated controls, mice treated with Bensal HP experienced a visible reduction in skin irritation and inflammation. These findings were mirrored on histology, as Bensal HP-treated areas demonstrated increased epidermal integrity and decreased dermal inflammatory infiltrate compared to untreated skin. Using immunohistochemistry, fewer neutrophils and macrophages were noted, and cytokine analysis also revealed decreased IL-6 in Bensal HP-treated skin at 24 and 96 hours after shaving. These results highlight the potential of Bensal HP as an anti-inflammatory treatment for shave irritation. Given the product’s application against a variety of inflammatory and infectious skin disorders, its use against shave irritation may also improve comorbid skin conditions, such as pseudofolliculitis barbae.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):836-840.
Catherine N. Tchanque-Fossuo MD MS,a,b,* Derek Ho BS,a,b,* Sara E. Dahle DPM MPH,b,c Eugene Koo MS,a R. Rivkah Isseroff MD,a,b and Jared Jagdeo MD MSa,b,d
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) represent a significant complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). DFU affect one in four patients
with DM and treatments of DFU are limited and challenging. The management of DFU remains a significant healthcare and socioeconomic
burden ($245 billion). There is a wide range of advanced therapies for DFU, but these are costly and have demonstrated only
minimal efficacy in limited published studies. An emerging treatment modality to improve DFU and optimize wound healing is the use
of low-level light therapy (LLLT). LLLT involves the use of light in the form of low-level or low-power laser or light emitting diodes to alter
biochemical pathways, which may result in changes to cell shape, cell migration, and cell signaling.
OBJECTIVE: To review published clinical experiences (case series and case reports) using LLLT for treatment of DFU, and provide
evidence-based recommendations and future directions on the potential of LLLT as a therapeutic modality for DFU.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: On January 16, 2016 we searched the published literature using databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL,
and Web of Science with key terms: “diabetic foot” AND (“low level laser therapy” OR “low level light therapy” OR “LLLT” OR “light
emitting diode” OR “phototherapy” OR “laser”).
RESULTS: After screening of titles, abstracts and/or full-text, 7 original articles were suitable in our review. Our review contains 5 case
series and 2 case reports that evaluated LLLT for treatment of DFU, and all reviewed studies have shown positive improvement of DFU
using LLLT with no adverse events, albeit with limitations that may be minimized with future RCTs.
CONCLUSIONS: LLLT is an emerging and promising treatment modality to current alternatives that are costly and have shown limited
success. Based upon the published evidence, we envision additional research may allow for stronger recommendation with LLLT for
treatment of DFU.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):843-848.
Isaac Zilinsky MD,a Tamar Brutman Barazani PhD,b Boris Shenkman PhD,b Oren Weisman MD,c Nimrod Farber MD,c and Uriel Martinowitz MDb
BACKGROUND: Between stages of Mohs micrographic surgery, the wound is dressed and the patient waits for the histopathological results.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of a hemostatic-anesthetic solution-impregnated gauze in decreasing bleeding between Mohs stages.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients were treated with a hemostatic-anesthetic solution composed of tranexamic acid, adrenaline, and lidocaine (TAL), and 20 others were treated with a saline solution for control. At the second Mohs stage, size measurements of the blood stain on a Telfa pad and the defect were recorded. The Rotation Thromboelastometry Method (ROTEM) was used to investigate a possible effect of lidocaine and adrenaline on the clot stability induced by tranexamic acid.
RESULTS: The ratio of blood stain size to Mohs defect size in the hemostatic anesthetic solution group was 1:1.47, whereas the ratio in the control saline group was 1:3.37 (P<.001). Results of the ROTEM test showed that lidocaine and adrenaline did not interfere with the effect of tranexamic acid on clot formation and stability.
CONCLUSION: The application of gauze impregnated with tranexamic acid, adrenaline, and lidocaine on a surgical wound may be effective in reducing bleeding between Mohs stages.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):851-855.
Heather K. Hamilton MD,a Evelyn Lilly MD,a,b Kenneth A. Arndt MD,a and Jeffrey S. Dover MD FRCPCa
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting for appearance-related concerns are often perceived as being more difficult (ie, more needy, more difficult to satisfy) than patients presenting for medical dermatologic problems. While the reasons for this perception are many, some hypothesize that this may be related to a higher rate of anxiety, depression, or body image issues among these patients.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to the prevalence of such medication use in general dermatology patients.
METHODS & MATERIALS: The study was a retrospective chart review of female patients, 18 or older, new to a private practice. Exclusion criteria included dermatologic disorders with known psychosocial comorbidity. Psychotropic medication use was recorded.
RESULTS: The percentage of subjects in the medical group (n=156) who reported using psychotropic medications was 22.2% compared to 26.8% in the cosmetic group (n=154; P=0.09).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychotropic medication use among all dermatology patients in our practice was relatively high, but there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to general dermatology patients.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):858-861.
Patricia Farris MD,a Joshua Zeichner MD,b and Diane Berson MDc
Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night.
The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling.
The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868.
INTRODUCTION: Irritation, such as burning and stinging, on the site of application, is a common side effect of topical dermatologic products including creams, lotions, sprays, and foams. This effect may be more pronounced when applying products to atopic or psoriatic skin. The composition of the vehicle may affect the extent of the irritation. This study compared the irritation and erythema potential of 7 different topical dermatologic products to determine the products with the least likelihood of causing discomfort when applied.
METHODS: Seven sites on the anterior leg of 30 subjects were dry shaven with 10 upward strokes. Subjects rated the stinging of petrolatum (negative control), isopropyl alcohol (positive control), Cetaphil Lotion, triamcinolone 0.1% cream, triamcinolone 0.2% spray, betamethasone foam, and clobetasol 0.05% spray, 1 minute after product application, using a scale of 0 (no symptoms) to 10 (intolerable stinging/burning). The investigator assessed erythema at the sites 30 minutes after application of the products using a scale of 0 (none) to 4 (severe).
RESULTS: Stinging rating score of each product was statistically significant from one another. Petrolatum produced the least stinging (0) and isopropyl alcohol the most (10). Stinging with triamcinolone spray, Cetaphil Lotion, and triamcinolone cream ranked in the lower half of the rating scale (all below 5). Betamethasone foam and clobetal spray ranked the highest at >7. When corrected for the erythema caused by shaving, triamcinolone spray and Cetaphil Lotion produced the least amount of erythema of all the products tested.
DISCUSSION: Rapid evaporation of the volatile vehicle of triamcinolone spray and the non-irriating nature of the medication left behind may contribute to its low erythema and stinging. This product may be an appropriate choice for patients with compromised skin but who require the advantages and conveniences of a spray vehicle.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):870-873.
Wilma Bergfeld MD,a Ken Washenik MD PhD,b,c Valerie Callender MD,d Paul Zhang PhD,e Carlos Quiza MD,e Uday Doshi PhD,e and Ulrike Blume-Peytavi MDf
BACKGROUND Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common hair disorder that affects millions of women. A new 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) formulation, which does not contain propylene glycol, has been developed.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily 5% MTF with vehicle foam for the treatment of FPHL.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, international multicenter trial (17 sites) in women aged at least 18 years with FPHL (grade D3 to D6 on the Savin Density Scale), treated once daily with 5% MTF or vehicle foam for 24 weeks. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the change from baseline at week 24 in target area hair count (TAHC) and subject assessment of scalp coverage. Also evaluated were TAHC at week 12, expert panel review of hair regrowth at week 24, and change from baseline in total unit area density (TUAD, sum of hair diameters/cm2) at weeks 12 and 24.
RESULTS: A total of 404 women were enrolled. At 12 and 24 weeks, 5% MTF treatment resulted in regrowth of 10.9 hairs/cm2 and 9.1 hairs/cm2 more than vehicle foam, respectively (both P<.0001). Improved scalp coverage at week 24 was observed by both subject self-assessment (0.69-point improvement over vehicle foam; P<.0001) and expert panel review (0.36-point improvement over the vehicle foam; P<.0001). TUAD increased by 658 μm/cm2 and 644 μm/cm2 more with 5% MTF than with vehicle foam at weeks 12 and 24, respectively (both P<.0001). MTF was well tolerated. A low incidence of scalp irritation and facial hypertrichosis was observed, with no clinically significant differences between groups.
CONCLUSION: Five percent MTF once daily for 24 weeks was well tolerated and promoted hair regrowth in women with FPHL, resulting in improved scalp coverage and increased hair density compared with vehicle foam.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: nCT01226459
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):874-881.
Ulrike Blume-Peytavi MD,a Jerry Shapiro MD,b Andrew G. Messenger MD,c Maria K. Hordinsky MD,d Paul Zhang PhD,e Carlos Quiza MD,e Uday Doshi PhD,e and Elise A. Olsen MDf
BACKGROUND: A once-daily minoxidil topical foam (MTF) has been developed to treat female pattern hair loss.
OBJECTIVE: Determine noninferiority of once-daily 5% MTF versus twice-daily 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) based on the change from baseline in target area hair count (TAHC) at 24 weeks.
METHODS: In a randomized, phase III trial, women with female pattern hair loss received once-daily 5% MTF (n=161) or twice-daily 2% MTS (n=161) for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was change from baseline in TAHC at 24 weeks. Secondary endpoint was change from baseline in TAHC at 12 weeks. Exploratory endpoints included change in total unit area density and change in overall scalp coverage.
RESULTS: Once-daily 5% MTF increased TAHC from baseline (adjusted mean ± standard error) by 23.9 ± 2.1 hairs/cm2 at week 24. Twice-daily 2% MTS increased TAHC 24.2 ± 2.1 hairs/cm2 at week 24. The treatment difference was –0.3 hairs/cm2 (95% CI = –6.0, 5.4). Since the lower bound of the 95% CI was less than –5.0, the prespecified noninferiority goal was not met. Both treatments were well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily 5% MTF and twice-daily 2% MTS induced hair regrowth in female pattern hair loss, but prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145625
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):883-889.