From Probiotic to Prebiotic Using Thermal Spring Water openaccess articles

June 2018 | Volume 17 | Issue 6 | Original Article | 657 | Copyright © 2018

Joshua Zeichner MDa and Sophie Seite PhDb

aMount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY bLa Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Levallois-Perret, France

   
Figure1figure2As LRP-TSW contains live bacteria that impact the skin’s microbiota, the water itself is considered to be a probiotic.2In discussing the safety of drinking water, the World Health Organization (WHO-2006) recommends that “Water entering the distribution system must be microbiologically safe”, meaning that it should not be contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. However, the WHO does not contend that drinking water is microorganism free, and in fact, bacteria are present in relatively high numbers (102 to 104 cells/ml) in drinking water.4-6Probiotic versus Prebiotic WaterWhile a probiotic is a product containing live microorganisms, a product containing an ingredient or nutrient that selectively stimulates or inhibits the growth or activity of commensal skin bacteria, is considered a prebiotic.7 Filtered LRP-TSW, that does not contain living bacteria can be considered a prebiotic. The product has a low mineral content (<1 g/L) and specific trace elements like Se and Sr, which are necessary for cellular functions including enzyme activity. Intrinsically its major biological properties are free radical “scavengers”, anti-inflammatory and toxic heavy metals protection. Prebiotic TSW has been shown to be beneficial in subjects with dry but otherwise healthy skin.7 The effect of LRP-TSW using a commercial spray (2 sprays per application) twice a day for 14 days on inner forearms, was evaluated in 70 healthy subjects with dry skin (corneometry measurement ≤ 50 au).7 Thirty minutes after the last application of LRP-TSW microbiome sampling of the treated and nearby untreated skin was performed to determine bacterial community composition. Treatment resulted in a significant increase in Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease of Gram-positive bacteria on the skin surface of treated skin areas versus nearby untreated areas was noted (Figure 2). Interestingly, topical application of a moisturizer containing LRP-TSW in a similar protocol demonstrated a significantly increased level of Xanthomonas genus correlated with increased skin hydration levels (Figure 3).Effect of Balneotherapy on the Skin Microbiome in Some Inflammatory Skin DiseasesThe microbiota is the collection of microorganisms that live on and in our bodies. The complex diversity and composition of microbial communities on the skin vary by skin region5 and between individuals.5,6 The skin microbiota is composed of around 80% Gram-positive and 20% Gram-negative bacteria. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria for Gram-positive bacteria, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes are the main phyla of skin Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial diversity is mainly driven by Gram-negative bacteria, and abundance by Gram-positive

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