Adalimumab (HUMIRA™, Abbott Laboratories) is a new fully human TNF-? monoclonal antibody recently
approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and undergoing trials for use in treating other conditions,
including psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. This article reviews its mechanisms of action, clinical trial results,
and related discussion.
Eric S. Schweiger, MD; Noah S. Scheinfeld, MD; Hillarie R. Tishler, BA and Jeffrey M. Wienberg, MD
With the continuing development of clinical drug resistance among bacteria, the need for new, effective agents
to treat multi-drug-resistant Gram-positive infections remains important. With treatment options limited, it
has become critical to identify antibiotics with novel mechanisms of activity. Several new drugs have emerged
as possible therapeutic alternatives. This review focuses on agents newly introduced and FDA-approved for the
treatment of skin and skin structure infections: linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin.
Michelle Emily Weisfelner BS and Alice B Gottlieb MD PhD
The mechanisms of apoptosis have been extensively studied in certain cell types such as lymphocytes. However,
while it is known that apoptosis is an intrinsic part of the turnover of normal human keratinocytes, relatively
little is known about how this cell population utilizes programmed cell death to maintain cutaneous homeostasis.
The apoptotic pathways thought to be employed by epidermal keratinocytes in the various cell layers are
reviewed, with special emphasis on the protective mechanisms such as proto-oncogenes bcl-2 and Bcl-XL,
growth factors, and the NFkB pathway in protecting keratinocytes from premature apoptosis during the process
of upward migration and differentiation. The similarities and distinctions between terminal differentiation and
apoptosis in keratinocytes are discussed. Both the passive and active apoptosis, including the TNF alpha and
Fas-mediated pathways are highlighted, with regards to utilization in normal human epidermal turnover. A firm
understanding of the mechanisms of apoptosis in normal human epidermis may allow dermatologists to further
appreciate the aberrancies of this process in psoriatic epidermis, and impact on future targets by which to treat
Mitchel P. Goldman, MD and Sarah M. Boyce, MD
This article describes a single-center trial involving twenty-two patients with acne vulgaris. Blu-U light was
used in all patients, while half were pre-treated with aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results show promise for
this treatment in mild to moderate inflammatory acne vulgaris.
Anthony F. Santoro, MD; Mark A. Rezac, MD and Jason B. Lee, MD
Ivermectin, an anti-parasitic agent widely used for onchocerciasis in humans, is emerging as an oral antiscabietic
that is as safe and effective as the topical antiscabietics. In the recent reports, all groups of population
responded to ivermectin in the treatment of scabies, including immunocompetent, immunocompromised, and
other high-risk populations such as individuals with Down’s syndrome. This report reviews the efficacy, the
mechanism of action, and the safety profile of ivermectin in the treatment of scabies, particularly its utility in
crusted scabies and outbreaks of scabies in institutional settings.
Martha P. Arroya. MD, PhD and Louisa Tift, BA
Vitiligo is a disfiguring skin disease. Many insights into its pathogenesis have been identified in recent years;
however, treatment remains a challenge. In this article, the various treatment options for the treatment of
vitiligo are outlined and newer treatment options are discussed.
S. Ray Peterson, MD and Leonard H. Goldberg, MD, FCRP
No abstract details for the moment.
Michael Kockaert, MD and Martino Neumann, MD, PhD
The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs1. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article.