Volume 17 | Issue 4
Joyce H. Park MD,a Mitalee P. Christman MD,a Eleni Linos MD DrPH,b and Evan A. Rieder MDa|Forty-two percent of Americans search for health-related information on social media platforms, and forty-five percent of consumers report that social media health information influences their decision to seek care.
Deborah S. Sarnoff MD,a Robert H. Gotkin MDb|No abstract details for the moment.
Wendy E. Roberts MD FAAD|The intent of this brief communication is to revisit the Roberts Skin Type Classification System published by Journal of Drugs in Dermatology (JDD) in 2008 with a 2018 lens and provide additional information for its wider acceptance and implementation.
Amanda Suggs MD,a Mathew Loesch DO PhD,b Harib Ezaldein MD,a Luisa Christensen MD,a Danyelle Dawes MD,a and Elma Baron MDa,c|IMPORTANCE: Surveying identical twins allows us to qualitatively separate genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to acne severity. OBJECTIVE: To study a cohort of identical and fraternal twins to identify environmental factors that may influence acne severity. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS : A survey was administered to 139 identical and fraternal twin multiples (279 subjects) at the Annual Twins Day Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio on August 6-7, 2016. One set of triplets was included. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): Acne incidence, severity, and triggers were analyzed using the N-1 Chi-squared test and paired, 2-tailed t test. RESULTS: The proportion of concordant pairs was significantly higher in identical (64%) vs fraternal (49%) twins (P=0.04). Acne was found to be associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS; P=0.045), anxiety (P =0.014), and asthma (P=0.026). Identical twin pairs with acne had a higher BMI (P= 0.020) and exercised significantly less (P=0.001) than those without acne. Analyzing concordant twin pairs, the twin with more severe acne was more likely to report aggravation of acne with cosmetic product use (P=0.002) and sugar intake (P=0.048). CONCLUSIONS AND REVELANCE: This twin study further supports that there may be a genetic phenotypic link, though social and environmental factors may also have an influence in the disease process.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):380-382.
Taylor L. Braunberger MD,a Amanda F. Nahhas DO,a Linda M. Katz MD MPH,b Nakissa Sadrieh PhD,b and Henry W. Lim MDa|The sunless tanning industry has experienced rapid growth due to public education on the dangers of ultraviolet radiation on skin and improvements in products. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a 3-carbon sugar allowed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a color additive in sunless tanning products. Bronzers, a product removed with soap and water, may also contain DHA. We aim to review the literature on DHA. DHA is intended for external application, not including the mucous membranes or in or around the eye area. DHA has been used in spray-tan booths and by airbrushing it onto consumers, although these are unapproved uses, as contact with the color additive is not restricted to the external part of the body. Consequently, the FDA recommends customers shield their eyes, lips, and mucous membranes, as well as refrain from ingestion or inhalation of DHA. Unlike sunscreens, products that protect against ultraviolet radiation and are regulated by the FDA as non-prescription drugs, sunless tanning products are regulated as cosmetics and cannot provide any protection from exposure to ultraviolet radiation. There are reports of non-cosmetic uses of DHA that are not FDA approved. With the wide-spread use of DHA, additional studies on its safety are warranted.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):387-391.
Dee Anna Glaser MD,a Adelaide Hebert MD,b Lisa Pieretti,c and David Pariser MDd|Hyperhidrosis affects 4.8% of the US population, and despite the well documented negative impact of hyperhidrosis on patients’ lives, data are generally lacking on the patient experience with this condition. The International Hyperhidrosis Society (IHHS) conducted a study in 2014, and initial results confirmed the multifaceted impact of hyperhidrosis on quality of life and underscored the need for disease awareness and effective management. To provide further insight into the hyperhidrosis patient experience, additional results focusing on family history, physician interaction, impact on daily activities, and treatment satisfaction are presented here. The online survey included 22 multiple-choice questions (some allowing multiple responses). Respondents were IHHS newsletter registrants in the US self-identified as suffering with excessive sweating (ie, answering ‘yes’ to Question 1). Of 28,587 survey invitations, a total of 5,042 recipients (17.6%) opened the e-mail, and 2,045 respondents provided an answer to Question 1. Of these, 1,985 (6.9%) self-identified as having excessive sweating and continued the survey. Over 18% of survey respondents reported an immediate family member with excessive sweating. The top three areas impacted by excessive sweating were daily activity, clothing choice, and work/career (average rank scores over 3.0 for each area; range 1-8 with lower scores indicating greater impact). Nearly half (48.9%) of respondents reported waiting 10 or more years prior to seeking medical help, and 85.0% waited at least 3 years. Of the 87.2% of respondents who received treatment for hyperhidrosis, patients were most satisfied with injections and least satisfied with prescription and over-the-counter antiperspirants and liposuction. These survey results add important clinical insight for the underserved hyperhidrosis patient population. The reported delay in seeking proper medical attention highlights the need to increase hyperhidrosis awareness among the public and clinicians, to reduce stigma associated with the condition, and to encourage active treatment strategies.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):392-396.
Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia and Concomitant Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: A Case Series of Seven African American Women
Laura N. Uwakwe MD, Leah A. Cardwell MD, Emily H. Dothard MD, Bernice I. Baroudi BS, and Amy J. McMichael MD|The association of frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) and lichen planus pigmentosus (LPPigm) is rare. Prior reports suggest that FFA and LPPigm are on the same spectrum of disease, and a diagnosis of LPPigm may predict the future development of FFA. We aim to further characterize the association between FFA and LPPigm by reviewing the clinical cases of seven African American women. Seven patients with FFA were diagnosed clinically by recession of frontotemporal hairline and confirmed by histopathologic examination showing lymphocyte-mediated cicatricial alopecia. LPPigm was diagnosed by clinical evaluation alone based on the characteristic morphology, color, and distribution of the lesions. It is difficult to distinguish whether halted progression of FFA was due to the success of the treatment regimen or spontaneous stabilization of disease over time. Our case series supports the theory that FFA and LPPigm likely exist on the same spectrum of disease. Our observations demonstrate a likely positive correlation between FFA and LPPigm.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):397-400.
Penelope J. Kallis BS BAa and Adam J. Friedman MDb|Chronic wounds, such as pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and venous leg ulcers, are associated with high costs, poor quality of life, and significant morbidity and mortality. A chronic wound develops when progression through the normal phases of wound healing goes awry, creating a hostile environment with elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), destruction of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and diminished activity of growth factors and other soluble mediators. The advent of advanced wound care therapies allows for a targeted approach to the treatment of nonhealing wounds by addressing specific molecular defects in healing. Collagen is an essential building block of the skin that when utilized as an adjunctive wound therapy stimulates and recruits immune cells and fibroblasts and martyrs itself for degradation by MMPs, thereby preserving native ECM structure and promoting healing. Particulate or powdered collagen is processed to minimize covalent cross-linking and is purported to exert its biologic activity immediately upon application. This article critically reviews the current evidence for collagen powder as an adjunctive therapy for chronic wounds and presents indications, limitations, and principles of use. In general, there is a need for high quality studies and randomized control trials to support its use in clinical practice.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):403-408.
Ravi Jain MBBS MRCGP,a Gerardo Moreno Arias MD PhD,b Pablo Naranjo MD,c Max Murison MD,d Jose Luis López Estebaranz MD PhD,e Alina Fratila MD,f Welf Prager MD,g Carlos Guillén Barona MD,h Michael Weidmann MD,i Serge Dahan MD,j Hugues Cartier MD,k Gerhard Sattler MD,l and Maurizio Podda MD PhDm|Introduction: A variety of topical anesthetic creams are available to reduce pain associated with dermatological procedures. Pliaglis is a self-occluding eutectic mixture of lidocaine and tetracaine. Study Objectives: To evaluate the post-marketing safety profile of Pliaglis and efficacy in terms of pain reduction, product satisfaction, and daily practice use prior to pre-defined dermatological procedures. Methods: A prospective, non-interventional study conducted at 44 sites in four European countries; 581 patients were treated prior to dermatological procedures such as pulsed-dye laser therapy, laser-assisted hair removal, non-ablative laser resurfacing, dermal filler injections, and vascular access. Efficacy was assessed by patients and investigators and included pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS]), satisfaction, and adequacy of pain relief. Safety was evaluated by adverse event (AE) reporting. Results: In 75% of the performed procedures, patients scored the pain experienced during the procedure as ≤30 mm on the VAS and most were very satisfied or satisfied with the pain reduction. The investigators assessed the product as providing adequate anesthesia in 97% of the performed procedures and were mostly very satisfied or satisfied with the convenience of use (79%) and tolerability (95%). Twenty-four AEs were reported in 18 (3%) patients. Discussion: Most patients experienced mild pain only as evident by the ≤ 30 mm VAS scores. Patients and investigators were aligned with regards to both product satisfaction and their opinion on adequacy of pain reduction. The AE frequency was low compared to previous studies, possibly relating to different ways of collecting AEs. Conclusion: Pliaglis was well-tolerated and provided adequate pain reduction prior to dermatological procedures. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01800474).
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):413-418.
Partial study data have been presented at the Anti-Aging Medicine European Congress (AMEC), Paris; October, 24-25, 2014, and the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV), Istanbul; October 2-6, 2013.
Christopher I. Zoumalan MD FACS|Scar formation is the body’s natural healing response to reestablish dermal integrity following an injury. Excessive scarring, however, can cause significant cosmetic, functional, and psychological problems. A wide variety of topical creams, lotions, and oils are available for scar treatment or wound healing. Sieving through the options and selecting the best option for their patients can be challenging for clinicians, especially given that clinical evidence for many of the active agents in commonly used topical treatments is lacking. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of topical treatments utilized for scar management, including their mechanism of action and evidence of efficacy. As knowledge of the wound healing process is critical to understanding the effects of topical treatments, the pathophysiology of wound healing is also reviewed.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):421-425.
Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Clinical Trial of an Alpha and Beta Defensin-Containing Anti-Aging Skin Care Regimen With Clinical, Histopathologic, Immunohistochemical, Photographic, and Ultrasound Evaluation
Amy Taub MD,a Vivian Bucay MD,b Gregory Keller MD,c Jay Williams PhD,c and Darius Mehregan MDd|Background/Objectives: Anti-aging strategies utilizing stem cells are in the forefront. Alpha and beta defensins are natural immune peptides that have been shown to activate an LGR6-positive stem cell locus in the hair follicle, identified as the source of most new epidermal cells during acute wound healing. We investigated the ability of biomimetic alpha and beta defensin molecules, supplemented with supportive cosmetic ingredients, formulated into three skin care products, at improving the structure and function of aging skin. Methods: A participant- and investigator -blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial was performed in outpatient settings. Forty-four healthy female subjects, aged 41-71 years, skin types I-V, completed the study with 2/3 receiving full formula and 1/3 receiving the placebo formula. A skin care regimen of 3 products (serum, cream, and mask) containing alpha-defensin 5 and beta-defensin 3, and other cosmetic ingredients, was applied to the face, post-auricular, and neck skin two times per day for 12 weeks in those receiving full formula, whereas the placebo group received the identically packaged regimen without the active ingredients. Methods of evaluation included histopathology and immunohistochemistry (7 subjects), clinical evaluation of pores, superficial and deep wrinkles based on Griffiths scale, and high-resolution photography (all subjects). In addition, a subset of 15 patients were evaluated with the QuantifiCare system (3-dimensional imaging and skin care scores for evenness, pores, oiliness) and Cortex measurements (high-resolution skin ultrasound, TEWL, elasticity, color, and hydration). Data points for evaluation included baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. All patients used the same sunscreen and cleanser, which was provided to them. Results: The full formula regimen caused a significantly (P equals 0.027) increased thickness of the epidermis as seen in histology, not seen in the placebo group, with no signs of inflammation. No excessive cell proliferation was detected in either group as measured by Ki67-immunohistochemistry. Reduction in visible pores, superficial wrinkles, oiliness, pigmentation, and improvement of skin evenness, were statistically significant. A trend for improvement was also observed in skin elasticity, TEWL, and hydration; these did not achieve statistical significance. Ultrasound and histopathology demonstrated increases in dermal thickness in individual patients, without statistical significance. Comprehensive improvement in all 5 parameters, including visible pores, hyperpigmentation, superficial and deep wrinkles, and epidermal thickness, was statistically significant when the subset of participants assigned for histology in full formula group was compared with the placebo group participants. Conclusions: A 3-product skin care regimen containing alpha and beta defensins globally improves the visual appearance and structure of aging skin without irritation, dryness, or inflammation. Specifically, this regimen increases epidermal thickness, reduces appearance of pores, reduces wrinkles, and reduces melanin. This skin care regimen stimulates rejuvenation without evidence of increase of a marker of carcinogenic stimulation. This data is consistent with the hypothesis that a defensin-containing skin care regimen activates the body’s own dormant stem cells to generate healthy new epidermal cells.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):426-441.THIS ARTICLE HAD BEEN MADE AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN TO ACCESS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS ARTICLE WITHOUT LOGGING IN. NO PURCHASE NECESSARY. PLEASE CONTACT THE PUBLISHER WITH ANY QUESTIONS.
Prospective, Randomized, Investigator-Blinded, Split-Face Evaluation of a Topical Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid Serum for Post-Procedural Improvement of Skin Quality and Biomechanical Attributes
Hema Sundaram MD FAAD,a Angnieszka Cegielska MD,b Agnieszka Wojciechowska,b and Patrice Delobel PhDc|Background: This split-face, controlled study investigated the ability of a topical crosslinked hyaluronic acid formulation (RHA serum) to enhance clinical results from fillers, microneedling, or chemical peeling of aging skin. Previous comparative skin explant studies demonstrated greater efficacy of RHA serum than topical non-crosslinked high or low molecular weight hyaluronic acid in decreasing trans-epidermal water loss, increasing epidermal hydration, and improving corneocyte microstructure. Methods: 24 female subjects aged 35 to 55 were enrolled. 8 received intradermal hyaluronic acid filler injection, 8 received microneedling, and 8 received superficial mandelic acid chemical peeling. Subjects initiated twice-daily, standardized application of RHA serum to one side of the face 2 days after the procedure. Topographical imaging, bioinstrumental, and blinded clinical evaluations were performed at days 0, 14, and 28. Results: Areas treated with RHA serum showed statistically significant improvements in skin surface topography and hydration compared to untreated areas. Blinded investigator scoring showed greater improvement of RHA serum-treated skin in moisture, tone/complexion, radiance, texture, uniformity, and global appearance. Subjects’ questionnaire responses correlated with these findings. Subjects expressed greater satisfaction with appearance of the treated hemiface. No adverse events were observed during the study. Conclusions: When initiated post-procedurally, topical RHA serum was well-tolerated and enhanced biomechanical properties, quality, and clinical appearance of the skin. Based on these data, RHA serum may be of value in improving patient outcomes and satisfaction following minimally invasive aesthetic procedures. The availability of the same hyaluronic acid technology also as a cohesive, tissue-integrating injectable filler enables synergistic, multi-level treatment plans to be devised.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):442-450.
A Systematic Review of Topical Finasteride in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia in Men and Women
Sung Won Lee MD, Margit Juhasz MD, Pezhman Mobasher MD, Chloe Ekelem MD, and Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska MD PhD|Introduction: Currently, only topical minoxidil (MNX) and oral finasteride (FNS) are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Although FNS is efficacious for hair regrowth, its systemic use is associated with side effects limiting long-term utilization. Exploring topical FNS as an alternative treatment regimen may prove promising. Methods: A search was conducted to identify studies regarding human in vivo topical FNS treatment efficacy including clinically relevant case reports, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and prospective studies. Results: Seven articles were included in this systematic review. In all studies, there was significant decrease in the rate of hair loss, increase in total and terminal hair counts, and positive hair growth assessment with topical FNS. Both scalp and plasma DHT significantly decreased with application of topical FNS; no changes in serum testosterone were noted. Conclusion: Preliminary results on the use of topical FNS are limited, but safe and promising. Continued research into drug-delivery, ideal topical concentration and application frequency, side effects, and use for other alopecias will help to elucidate the full extent of topical FNS’ use.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):457-463.
Luiz Eduardo Toledo Avelar MD,a,b Camila Eduardo de Paula Cazerta MD,c Marcelo Neira Avè MD,d and Danielle Ioshimoto Shitara MD PhDe|The bony structures of the face provide the framework upon which the soft-tissue envelope rests, such that facial symmetry and proportionality usually depend upon the morphological patterns and anthropometrical measurements of a symmetrical skull. Facial bony pillars are dynamic and variable according to the demands placed upon them, as well as gender and aging differences. Thus, a more profound knowledge of facial supporting pillars and their dynamic behavior by physicians who practice minimally cosmetic procedures would allow for a more natural approach to facial beautification. It would help them to rebalance age-related and asymmetric congenital imperfections, and minimize any harmful stigma associated with bad cosmetic practice.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):466-470.
Evan Austin BS,a,b Jillian W. Millsop MD,a,b Haines Ely MD,a,b Jared Jagdeo MD MS,a,b,c and Joshua M. Schulman MDa,b|A 50-year-old African-American woman presented to the dermatology clinic with a pruritic eruption of 3 years’ duration. On clinical examination, the patient had well-demarcated, pink, atrophic plaques and superficial erosions over the inframammary folds and mid-chest. She also had well-demarcated, hyperpigmented, hyperkeratotic scaly plaques over the abdomen, suprapubic region, elbows, knees, and back with sporadic small superficial blisters. A punch biopsy of the right abdomen was performed and revealed psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia, focal parakeratosis, and acantholysis throughout the superficial spinous and granular layers. Only a sparse inflammatory infiltrate was present in the underlying dermis. Clinical and histological findings supported the diagnosis of pemphigus foliaceus (PF), but psoriasis was included in the differential diagnosis due to the presence of discrete plaques with an erythematous border. We hypothesize that patients with psoriasiform presentations of PF may be misdiagnosed with plaque psoriasis. It is important to distinguish between PF and psoriasis as there is evidence that ultraviolet light, a common treatment for psoriasis, may exacerbate PF. We document and highlight this atypical psoriasiform presentation of PF in a patient with skin of color to raise awareness and improve diagnosis and outcomes.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):471-473.
Sydney E. Liang BS,a David E. Cohen MD MPH,b and Evan A. Rieder MDb|Proximal subungual onychomycosis (PSO), which predominantly involves the nail plate from the proximal nail fold, is the rarest form of onychomycosis. Classically associated with an immunocompromised state, PSO is an uncommon diagnosis in individuals without immunodeficiency. We present a case of a healthy 51-year-old man, who presented with a three-month history of white discoloration of multiple toenails. Physical examination revealed white, opaque patches on the proximal third nail plates of multiple toenails. The affected digits also demonstrated proximal onycholysis, subungual debris, and mild paronychia. Laboratory examinations, including routine serologic studies as well as human immunodeficiency virus and antinuclear antibodies, were within normal limits. Proximal nail fragments of the left hallux showed sections of dystrophic nail plate with mounds of parakeratosis, collections of neutrophils, and hyphae that highlighted with periodic acid-Schiff staining. The patient was diagnosed with PSO and tinea pedis bilaterally and treated with oral fluconazole with gradual improvement. This case of PSO highlights the potential for its rare occurrence in a healthy host. However, the clinical presentation of PSO should trigger an evaluation for possible immunodeficiency.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):475-478.
Although muco-adhesive acyclovir 50mg tablets are only approved for the management of recurrent oro-labial HSV-1 infections, their ability to achieve extremely high concentrations in saliva and oral tissues suggests the potential for other uses. In this case, the agent was successfully utilized as a single tablet monotherapy leading to rapid clinical resolution of severe post-operative oro-labial infection.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(4):479-480.