Jacqueline E. Greb BA, Caren Garber BA, and Alice B. Gottlieb MD PhD
BACKGROUND: Among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, efficacy, and tolerability of available treatments based on psoriatic arthritis (PsA) history are not well-described.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluate disease characteristics and treatment response variation in the moderate-to-severe psoriasis population based on PsA history.
METHODS: Simple-measure for assessing psoriasis activity (S-MAPA) was used to retrospectively analyze treatment responses.
RESULTS: 191 moderate-to-severe psoriatic patients, 58 with and 133 without rheumatologist-diagnosed PsA were analyzed. Regardless of PsA history, S-MAPA improvement was similar with biologic monotherapy (46.2 versus 44.1; P=0.74), traditional systemic monotherapy (62.29 versus 38.12; P=0.22), and combination treatments (64.62 versus 52.71; P=0.40) after 12 weeks. PsA patients on biologic monotherapy experienced a higher infection rate than patients without PsA (0.57% versus 0.19%; P=0.01). PsA patients experienced more adverse events (AEs) associated with traditional systemic monotherapy than biologic monotherapy (3.25 versus 1.04; P=.001).
LIMITATIONS: The relatively small PsA cohort was the primary limitation.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis responded similarly to all treatments independent of PsA history. PsA patients received more overall treatments and more biologic monotherapy prescriptions. PsA patients had a greater infection risk on biologic monotherapy compared to those without PsA, and greater adverse events risk on traditional systemic monotherapy compared to biologic monotherapy.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):917-922.
Matthew C. Matsunaga MDa and Paul S. Yamauchi MD PhDb
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, prevalent, multi-factorial condition that affects infants, children, and adults. Beyond topical therapy, a variety of systemic agents such as steroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine, mycophenoloic acid, and other agents are utilized to treat moderate to severe AD. However, these agents are associated with potential long term adverse events and organ toxicity. There is an unmet need for a safer, long-term systemic agent to adequately control moderate to severe AD. The role of the Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, in AD has led to the development of biologic agents to treat AD. The aim of this article is to review the role of IL-4 and IL-13 in the pathogenesis of AD and discuss some of the clinical trial data that target and inhibit IL-4 and IL-13 in positively altering the course and outcome of AD.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):925-929.
Michael David MD,a Dimitar Konstantinov Gospodinov MD,b Nicola Gheorghe MD,c Grisha Stefanov Mateev MD,d Mariyana Venelinova Rusinova MD,e Evgeniya Hristakieva MD,f Laura Gheuca Solovastru MD,g Rita.V. Patel MD,h Calin Giurcaneanu MD,i Mariela Chepileva Hitova MD,j Anca Ioana Purcaru MD,j Beti Horia MD,k Iliya Iliev Tsingov MD,l Rumyana Kaloferova Yankova MD,m Miroslava Ilieva Kadurina MD,n Michal Ramon MD,o Maria Rotaru MD,p Olga Simionescu MD,q Vasile Benea MD,r Zdravka Velichkova Demerdjieva MD,s Maria Rodica Cosgarea MD,t Horia Silviu Morariu MD,u Ziv Michael MD,v Patricia Cristodor MD,w Carmen Nica MD,x Michael H. Silverman MD,y David R. Bristol PhD,y Zivit Harpaz MSc,y Motti Farbstein BSc,y Shira Cohen MSc,y and Pnina Fishman PhDy
BACKGROUND: CF101, an adenosine A3 receptor agonist, is an orally bioavailable small molecule drug presenting an anti-psoriatic effect demonstrated in a Phase 2 clinical trial in psoriasis patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CF101 treatment in a Phase 2/3 study in patients with moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis.
METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, 2-segment, placebo-controlled study randomized subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis to CF101 1 or 2 mg, or placebo twice daily. At either week 12 (Segment 1) or 16 (Segment 2), the placebo group crossed over to CF101 BID through week 32 in an open-label fashion. At week 12, following an interim analysis, the CF101 1mg group was discontinued due to futility. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients achieving ≥75% improvement in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI 75). Efficacy testing was performed using the Cochran-Mantel Haenszel test, the primary analysis of PASI 75 was performed at the 0.035 significance level.
RESULTS: CF101 had an excellent safety profile at all tested dosages with a profile similar to the placebo group. The most common adverse events were infections and gastrointestinal events, and there was no cumulative intolerance over the 32-week dosing period. The study did not meet the primary endpoint of PASI 75 at week 12 (2 mg: 8.5% vs. placebo: 6.9%, P=0.621). However, at week 32, PASI mean percent improvement with CF101 2 mg was 57% (P<0.001) compared to baseline, with linear improvement in PASI 50 (63.5%), 75 (35.5%), 90 (24.7%), and 100 (10.6%).
CONCLUSIONS: Oral CF101 was found to be safe and very well tolerated, demonstrating evidence of efficacy in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis through 32 weeks of treatment.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):931-938.
Ronald B. Vender MD FRCPC
BACKGROUND: Biologics have changed the way we treat moderate to severe psoriasis. Clinical trials for these patients offer the chance for those suffering from psoriasis to volunteer their time for the advancement of science while possibly gaining benefit from the efficacy of these medications.
OBJECTIVE: All clinical trials have an ending by study design. In the past, trials ended abruptly but it is more common now for transitioning to the approved or another biologic to be offered. Sometimes, study subjects leave clinical trials suddenly for reasons of lack of efficacy, safety, withdrawing consent, being lost to follow-up, or personal reasons. Presenting early experience in transitioning is important for clinicians.
METHODS: A retrospective case series of 11 patients who were exposed to brodalumab from clinical trials that ended abruptly and transitioned to secukinumab is presented.
RESULTS: This is an early descriptive experience of transitioning between two IL-17 antagonists.
LIMITATIONS: A small number of patients were available and a short follow up limited the data presented.
CONCLUSION: Transitioning between two IL-17 antagonists is an option for those patients requiring such a change.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):941-943.
Lisa H. Lam PharmDa and Jeffrey L. Sugarman MD PhDb
BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are typically used for extended periods of time for chronic skin conditions, including psoriasis. Chronic TCS use may result in side effects similar to those of systemic corticosteroids. Patients may have subclinical adrenal suppression and be unaware of their risk in the case of serious trauma.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the real world effects of chronic TCS use and its effects on adrenal suppression in a chronic disease such as psoriasis.
MATERIALS: This retrospective study utilized data from screening visits of a psoriasis clinical trial in which subjects had been on chronic TCS.
RESULTS: In this study, subjects with moderate to severe psoriasis affecting 16-20% of total body surface area (BSA) and using high-potency TCS at screening had a lower post-cosyntropin cortisol level (18.83 mcg/dL) compared to those with moderate psoriasis involving 10-15% of total BSA and using lower potency TCS at screening (23.22 mcg/dL; P=0.03). Both subject groups had lower post-cosyntropin cortisol levels compared to normal, healthy adults (P<0.001 for both).
CONCLUSION: This suggests that real world chronic use of high potency TCS over a larger BSA may result in silent adrenal suppression.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):945-948.
Linda Stein Gold MD,a Mark Lebwohl MD,b Alan Menter MD,c John Villumsen MSc,d Monika Rosen PhD,d and John Koo MDe
BACKGROUND: Calcipotriene 0.005% (Cal)/betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (BD) aerosol foam was developed as a new treatment option for patients with psoriasis. This pooled analysis evaluated the efficacy of this formulation for 4 weeks of treatment.
METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years with mild–severe psoriasis were enrolled into three Phase II/III studies (nCT01536886, nCT01536938, nCT01866163); each study evaluated Cal/BD aerosol foam versus different comparators. Endpoints included: proportion of patients clear/almost clear with ≥2-step improvement in physician's global assessment of disease severity (‘treatment success’); modified (excluding head) psoriasis area and severity index (mPASI); proportion of patients with ≥75% reduction in mPASI (PASI75); change in itch (according to visual analog scale [VAS]).
RESULTS: 1104 patients were included in the pooled analysis: Cal/BD aerosol foam (n=564), Cal/BD ointment (n=135), BD aerosol foam (n=101), Cal aerosol foam (n=101), aerosol foam vehicle (n=152), ointment vehicle (n=51). At week 4, 51% of Cal/BD aerosol foam patients achieved treatment success, a higher proportion than in all other groups (Cal/BD ointment, 43%; BD aerosol foam, 31%; Cal aerosol foam, 15%; aerosol foam vehicle, 5%; ointment vehicle, 8%). Greater percentage mean decrease in mPASI with Cal/BD aerosol foam was noted versus other treatments at week 4 (72% vs 63%, 53%, 43%, 32%, and 33%, respectively); week 4 PASI75 rate was also greater (51% vs 41%, 34%, 18%, 7%, and 10%, respectively). Cal/BD aerosol foam was efficacious irrespective of baseline disease severity and on all body areas assessed (arms, legs, trunk). Cal/BD aerosol foam alleviated itch as early as week 1 (change in itch VAS: –30 mm), maintained to week 4 (change in itch VAS: –41 mm).
CONCLUSIONS: Cal/BD aerosol foam was significantly more effective than Cal/BD ointment and the individual active ingredients for treating psoriasis vulgaris, resulting in greater and faster reduction in disease severity and rapid, effective relief of itch.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):951-957.
Ellen B. Dennehy PhD,a Lu Zhang MS,a David Amato DO,a Orin Goldblum MD,a and Phoebe Rich MDb
BACKGROUND: Ixekizumab, a monoclonal antibody that selectively targets interleukin-17A, has been established as safe and effective in 3 Phase 3 trials for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The lifetime incidence of psoriatic nail disease is 80%-90% of patients, and approximately 50% of patients with psoriasis have nail involvement.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The design of UNCOVER-3, a Phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial that evaluated the efficacy and safety of ixekizumab for moderate to severe psoriasis, has been published previously. Patients were randomized to receive blinded placebo, etanercept (50 mg twice weekly) or 80 mg ixekizumab every 2 weeks (IXEQ2W) or every 4 weeks (IXEQ4W) for 12 weeks. At week 12, all patients were assigned to open-label ixekizumab 80 mg every 4 weeks through week 60. In this 60-week post hoc subset analysis, we evaluated only those patients with significant baseline nail involvement, defined as fingernail NAPSI ≥16 and at least 4 fingernails involved.
RESULTS: Ixekizumab Q2W or Q4W resulted in greater improvement in nail psoriasis than placebo or etanercept by week 12 of administration, as measured by percent NAPSI reduction (IXEQ2W 39% improvement, IXEQ4W 40%, etanercept 28%, placebo -4.7%). At week 24, significantly more patients receiving ixekizumab exhibited no signs of nail involvement (IXEQ2W/Q4W 34%, IXEQ4W/Q4W 30%). Similar gains were observed at 60 weeks in all treatment groups.
CONCLUSION: Ixekizumab led to improvement in fingernail psoriasis by week 12 compared with placebo. Continued improvement in fingernail psoriasis with ixekizumab was observed, with >50% of patients achieving complete fingernail psoriasis resolution (NAPSI=0) at week 60.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):958-961.
Lawrence F. Eichenfield MD,a Ted Lain MD,b Ellen H. Frankel MD,c Terry M. Jones MD,d Joan-En Chang-Lin PhD,e David R. Berk MD,e Shiling Ruan PhD,e and Alexandre Kaoukhov MDe
BACKGROUND: Dapsone gel, 5% is administered twice daily for the treatment of acne vulgaris, and some patients may find adherence challenging.
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to assess the efficacy and safety, compared with vehicle, of acne treatment with a recently FDA-approved, once-daily formulation of dapsone gel, 7.5%, with a 50% greater concentration of dapsone.
METHODS: This 12-week, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicenter clinical trial enrolled patients aged 12 years and older with 20–50 facial inflammatory lesions, 30–100 facial noninflammatory lesions, and an acne grade of 3 (moderate) on the Global Acne Assessment Score (GAAS). Patients were randomized (1:1 ratio) to topical dapsone gel, 7.5% or vehicle once daily for 12 weeks. Investigators assessed GAAS success rate (proportion of patients with a GAAS of 0 or 1) and percent change from baseline in inflammatory, noninflammatory, and total lesions.
RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population comprised 2238 patients (1118 in the dapsone gel, 7.5% group and 1120 in the vehicle group). The GAAS success rates were 29.8% for the dapsone gel, 7.5% group and 20.9% for the vehicle group (P<0.001) at week 12. At week 12, mean inflammatory lesions decreased from baseline by 53.8% and 47.3%, noninflammatory lesions decreased by 45.9% and 40.4%, and total lesions decreased by 48.9% and 43.2% for the dapsone gel, 7.5% group and the vehicle group, respectively (all, P<0.001). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar for dapsone gel, 7.5% (17.6%) and vehicle (17.1%). Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. The most frequently reported increase in severity for all of the dermal tolerability scales was from “none” to “mild.”
CONCLUSION: Dapsone gel, 7.5% applied topically once daily is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for acne vulgaris. Improvements in acne severity and lesions were observed over the 12-week course of treatment.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):962-969.
Ivan Bristow PhD,a Robert Baran MD,b and Michelle Score BSc (Hons)c
Onychomycosis continues to be a common and intractable problem in adults, often responding poorly to topical treatment due to limited drug penetration of the nail plate. Improving penetration has been attempted previously by chemical and physical means with some success. The authors present three cases of toenail onychomycosis treated topical terbinafine 1% solution using controlled micro-penetration of the nail using a novel intelligent nail drill system which is able to drill nail plate without penetrating the delicate nail bed beneath. The cases illustrate how the device has been successfully employed to deliver the anti-fungal drug directly and rapidly to the site of infection with minimal side effects or complications, whilst maintaining the nail integrity.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):974-978.
Craig Leonardi MD,a Jerry Bagel MD,b Paul Yamauchi MD,c David Pariser MD,d Zhenyi Xu MD,e Anders Møller MSc,e Marie Louise Østerdal MSc,e and Linda Stein Gold MDf
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis has a major impact on patient quality of life, similar to that seen in other chronic diseases, eg, diabetes. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are commonly included in clinical trial designs, capturing the disease burden and therapeutic success of a treatment. In the randomized, double-blind, phase III PSO-FAST (Psoriasis vulgaris, a Four-week, vehicle-controlled, efficacy And Safety Trial) study (nCT01866163), fixed combination calcipotriene (Cal) 0.005% plus betamethasone dipropionate (BD) 0.064% aerosol foam was compared with vehicle. By treatment end, 53% of patients using Cal/BD foam achieved treatment success.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact on HRQoL of Cal/BD foam vs vehicle in patients with mild-to-severe psoriasis.
METHOD: HRQoL was assessed by dermatology life-quality index (DLQI; baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4) and EQ-5D-5L (EQ-5D; baseline, week 4) questionnaires. A DLQI score of 0 (range, 0–30) indicates no effect on the patient’s life; an EQ-5D utility score of 1 (range, 0–1) and an EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) score of 100 (range, 1–100) indicate perfect health.
RESULTS: 426 patients were randomized (Cal/BD foam, n=323; vehicle, n=103). Baseline mean DLQI scores were 9.9 (Cal/BD foam) and 10.3 (vehicle). The impact of psoriasis on HRQoL (EQ-5D utility score) at baseline was primarily driven by pain/discomfort (Cal/BD foam: 69.9%; vehicle: 65.0%) and anxiety/depression (Cal/BD foam: 45.3%; vehicle 44.7%). There was a greater improvement from baseline in DLQI score for Cal/BD foam vs vehicle at week 4 (–7.0 vs –4.4; P<.001); increased improvement was also seen in EQ-5D scores. At week 4, 48.1% of patients using Cal/BD foam reported no effect of psoriasis on their lives (DLQI = 0/1), and of patients using Cal/BD foam with baseline DLQI scores ≥5, 81.2% achieved a ≥5-point improvement.
CONCLUSION: Cal/BD aerosol foam improved HRQoL after 4 weeks, with most patients experiencing a clinically meaningful improvement and almost 50% reporting no impairment.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):981-987.
Maggie Chow MD PhD,a Kevin Lai MS,b Richard Ahn PhD,b Rashmi Gupta PhD,b Sarah Arron MD PhD,b and Wilson Liao MDb
BACKGROUND: Adalimumab is an anti-TNF biologic drug that is efficacious in the treatment of psoriasis. However, the effect of adalimumab on genome-wide gene expression changes in skin and peripheral blood is not well characterized.
METHODS: Thirty adult subjects with > 10% body surface area of chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited for the study. Lesional skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples prior to and one month following treatment with adalimumab were collected. The skin samples were analyzed using genome-wide RNAseq, and the blood samples were analyzed using genome-wide Affymetrix microarrays. Data preprocessing and analysis were conducted using the EdgeR and Affy packages in R/Bioconductor.
RESULTS: In the skin, paired analysis before and after treatment revealed changes in pathways important to epidermal development and keratinocyte differentiation. Such important genes as keratin 6A and 6B, tubulin B6, desmocollin, and desmoglein 3 were among the top differentially expressed genes. In peripheral blood, pathways involved in hematopoetic cell lineage and immune response were found to be differentially expressed, including genes such as the Fc receptor-like A and 5, as well as immunoglobulin heavy chains. Using a principal components approach, we show that expression of genes in post-treatment skin more closely resembles that of healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: Treatment of psoriasis with adalimumab appears to be associated with modulation of keratinocyte and epidermal proliferation in the skin and with immunologic changes in the blood. We discuss the ramifications of these findings for the treatment for psoriasis.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):988-994.
Janna M. Vassantachart MD,a Teo Soleymani MD,b and Jashin J. Wu MD FAADc
Psoriasis is a common, chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder that significantly impacts quality of life and has potential systemic complications. The majority of psoriatic patients have mild to moderate disease and are adequately controlled with topical medications. However, approximately 20% of patients have moderate-to-severe disease. Phototherapy has remained a mainstay option for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis resistant to topical treatments due to its efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and relative lack of side effects, in particular a lack of systemic immunosuppression seen with traditional and biologic systemic therapies. There are several well-established guidelines for phototherapy treatment of psoriasis proposed in the United States by the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), in Europe by the European S3, and in the United Kingdom by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). The guidelines set by these groups are largely based on current evidence or expert panel consensus where evidence is lacking. This article reviews and compares the current recommendations of these guidelines for psoriasis phototherapy in regards to the initial clinical encounter, dosage, adverse reactions, and special considerations.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):995-1000.
The stress hormone, cortisol, is known to affect the function and cyclic regulation of the hair follicle.
When cortisol is present at high levels it has been demonstrated to reduce the synthesis and accelerate the degradation of important skin elements, namely hyaluronan and proteoglycans by approximately 40%.
The following discussion outlines the relationship between stress, cortisol, and the effect on the normal function of the hair follicle. As a result of this connection, important correlations have been established in the literature to form a basis for novel, effective treatments of stress-related hair growth disorders.
Amongst various treatment methods and substances, oral supplementation with a specific bioavailable proteoglycan stands out as a promising new therapeutic treatment method.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):1001-1004.
Daniel Schachter MD FRCPC,a Vince Bertucci MD FRCPC,b and Nowell Solish MD FRCPCc
Calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres in a carrier gel (CaHA; Radiesse®: Merz North America, Inc., Raleigh, NC) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for subdermal implantation for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial wrinkles and folds, such as nasolabial folds (NLFs). Lidocaine is often mixed with injectable dermal fillers to reduce injection pain. A new formulation of CaHA has been developed with the convenience of integral 0.3% lidocaine, CaHA (+).
This multicenter, split-face, double-blind study randomized subjects to receive treatment with CaHA (+) in one NLF and CaHA without lidocaine in the contralateral NLF. The pain level for each NLF was evaluated immediately following the injection using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS), and every 15 minutes for 60 minutes plus follow-up visits. Additional endpoints included aesthetic outcomes and subject preference. All subjects (N=102) received treatment.
CaHA (+) treatment resulted in a statistically and clinically significant reduction in pain ratings immediately after injection compared with CaHA. The mean difference in VAS scores for pain was -4.41 (P<0.0001). In 90% of subjects, the VAS scores were ≥2.0 cm lower for the CaHA (+)-treated NLF. A significant reduction in pain ratings throughout the first hour after injection was observed with CaHA (+) compared with CaHA (P<0.0001). Both treatment groups achieved significant aesthetic improvement; however, the pain differential resulted in a subject-reported preference for CaHA (+). CaHA (+) with integral lidocaine significantly reduces pain and is as effective as CaHA.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):1005-1010.
Jeffrey M. Cohen BA,1,* Kareem Halim AB,1,* Cara J. Joyce MS,2 Mital Patel MD,3 Abrar A. Qureshi MD MPH,4 and Joseph F. Merola MD MMSc3,5
While burden of disease (BOD) data exists for plaque psoriasis, and to a lesser extent other phenotypes of psoriasis, there is no published data on the impact of inverse (intertriginous) psoriasis. We sought to assess the overall BOD among patients with inverse psoriasis (IP). We introduce the Inverse Psoriasis Burden of Disease (IPBOD) questionnaire and compare it to the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). In this cross-sectional pilot study, we administered the IPBOD and the DLQI to 16 patients. We present the initial psychometric properties of the IPBOD survey. We used Spearman’s correlation coefficients to compare the two questionnaires on overall performance and in specific domains. Our cohort had an average age of 55.6 (SD 16.6) years, was predominantly female (68.8%), and white (87.5%). 87.5% of patients had a second psoriasis subtype. A majority of patients reported some effect of IP on pain (n=14, 87.5%). Thirteen (81.3%) patients reported some effect on depressed mood or anxiety/worry. Overall, the largest effect was on body self-image (93.8% reporting an effect). The average DLQI score was 8.5/30, higher than average DLQI scores reported in patients with plaque psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Average IPBOD score was 4.9/10. The reliability of IPBOD was good (overall Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89, individual items’ range 0.88 – 0.91). Correlations between IPBOD and DLQI were: overall (Spearman’s P=0.650, P=0.006), symptoms (P=0.462, P=0.072), daily activities (P=0.507, P=0.045), leisure (P=0.633, P=0.008), interpersonal function (P=0.728, P=0.001), and work and school (P=0.427, P=0.100). IP has a profound impact on patients’ lives and the results of this pilot study suggest that the IPBOD questionnaire may be a useful disease-specific tool for measuring the BOD of IP.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):1011-1016.
Anna Kurayev MD, Huda Ashkar MBBS, Ami Saraiya MD, and Alice B. Gottlieb MD PhD
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by significant morbidity. The clinical course of HS ranges from relatively mild cases characterized by recurrent tender, subcutaneous, inflammatory nodules to severe cases demonstrating painful, deep dermal abscesses, fibrosis, draining sinuses, and hypertrophic scars. Conventional treatment options for management of HS include topical and systemic antibiotics, antiandrogens, fumarates, biguanides, retinoids, immunosuppressive drugs, laser and phototherapy, and surgical excision. Given its association with pro-inflammatory cytokines, there has been interest in the use of novel biological agents. Recently, available treatment options have expanded to include tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-ai), interleukin-1 inhibitors (IL-1i), and interleukin-12/23 inhibitors (IL-12/23i), but the management of HS is still very challenging. In this review, the authors will discuss new therapies for HS.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):1017-1022.