Laura Jordan DO MS and Hilary E. Baldwin MD b
Stratum corneum (SC) abnormalities are associated with disease-affected skin conditions such as inflammatory acne. Current topical acne treatment options including benzoyl peroxide and retinoids can worsen the barrier dysfunctions by increasing transepidermal water loss, depleting SC vitamin E levels, and relatively decreasing SC thickness. However, strategies exist to employ these treatments in a more effective manner and lessen barrier function disruption including use of less irritating vehicles or concomitant application of moisturizers. Patients also play a role in the outcome of their skin barrier function based on their compliance and administration technique. By increasing patient compliance and proper application of treatments, patient skin barrier function can improve. Additionally, future treatments are on the horizon that may customize acne therapy at a molecular level.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1170-1173.
Courtney J. Burnett BS, Dennis P. West PhD, Alfred W. Rademaker PhD, and Roopal V. Kundu MD
BACKGROUND: To assess baseline knowledge and awareness of cardiometabolic comorbidities in subjects with psoriasis. To determine the impact of a verbal scripted educational intervention.
METHODS: Fifty-six adults with a clinical diagnosis of moderate to severe psoriasis completed a 12-item questionnaire about psoriasis comorbidity awareness and knowledge at 2 time points: pre-intervention (PR-I) and post-intervention (PO-I). The PR-I questionnaire collected information on history of psoriasis and cardiometabolic disease. A 5-minute scripted educational intervention was administered during a single study visit to subjects immediately after PR-I but prior to PO-I questionnaires. Subjects also completed a final questionnaire at 2 months follow-up (2-MF). Responses were statistically analyzed using McNemar’s test.
RESULTS: Fifty-six subjects (26 females, 30 males, mean age 51 years, range 21 to 83 years) participated in the PR-I and PO-I and 46 (82%) participated in 2-MF. Significant improvements were noted for 10 of 11 questions between PR-I and PO-I, and 8 of the scores remained significantly improved (compared with baseline) at 2-MF (P<0.05). At 2-MF, 65% of subjects had seen a primary care physician within the 2-month interval from PO-I to 2-MF, and another 26% planned to visit a primary care physician in the near future. Furthermore, 85% had checked their blood pressure in the past 2 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Measures of knowledge and awareness of psoriasis and cardiometabolic comorbidities were significantly improved at PO-I and retained for most measures at 2-MF. An educational intervention, as utilized in this study, warrants consideration to enhance cardiometabolic-based knowledge and awareness in patients with psoriasis.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1176-1180.
Martina Ulrich MD,a,b Susanne Lange-Asschenfeldt MD,a Kresten Skak PhD,c Torsten Skov MD,c Marie Louise Østerdal MsC,c Hans-Joachim Röwert-Huber MD,a John Robert Zibert PhD,c and Eggert Stockfleth MDa,d
Ingenol mebutate represents a topical treatment for fields with actinic keratosis (AK). The biological effects of ingenol mebutate in AK, subclinical (SC)-AK, and reference-skin were assessed and graded by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and histology. Patients with AK and SC-AK lesions in one 25 cm2 field on hands or forearms, and with an area of reference skin on the inner upper arm, were included. The two fields were each treated with ingenol mebutate 0.05% gel (n=16), or vehicle (n=8), on 2 consecutive days; clinical and RCM assessments were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 8, and 57, and biopsies on day 3. Local skin responses were more pronounced in AK fields (6.1 (mean) ± 2.6 (SD)) compared with reference skin (3.5 ± 1.5). The clinical AK lesion reduction was 43.8% and 6.3% with ingenol mebutate and vehicle, respectively. RCM and histology evaluations showed that ingenol mebutate induced a significant pronounced cell death and immune response in AK and SC-AK lesions, compared with reference skin. Ingenol mebutate induced RCM-measured reduction in (investigator-1/investigator-2): AK lesions (34/28%), SC-AK lesions (72/56%), and solar elastosis in AK fields (mean, -0.22/-0.25). In conclusion, ingenol mebutate showed selective pronounced biological responses in AK and SC-AK as compared with reference skin.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1181-1189.
Alice Gottlieb MD PhD,a Alan Menter MD,b April Armstrong MD,c Christopher Ocampo MD,d Yihua Gu MS,d and Henrique D. Teixeira PhDd
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, is a painful, chronic, debilitating, inflammatory skin disease and has shown response to anti-TNF-α therapy. Efficacy and safety of the anti-TNF-α agent, adalimumab, was assessed in a post hoc analysis of women from the first 16 weeks of a phase 2 study of men and women with HS.
METHODS: Patients with moderate-to-severe HS in at least 2 body areas, unresponsive or intolerant to oral antibiotics for treatment of their HS, and with no previous anti-TNF-a or systemic non-biologic treatment, were randomized 1:1:1 to 40 mg adalimumab-weekly or every-other-week, or placebo. Efficacy was analyzed post hoc for women from the intent-to-treat population (ITT Population). Efficacy was analyzed for the primary endpoint Hidradenitis Suppurativa Physicians Global Response Clinical Response (HS-PGA Clinical Response), Hidradenitis Suppurativa Clinical Response (HiSCR, defined as a ≥50% reduction in total abscess and inflammatory nodule count with no increase in abscess count and no increase in draining fistula count relative to baseline), and a pain endpoint, represented by 30% reduction measured by visual analog scale (VAS30).
RESULTS: At week 16, a higher percentage of women randomized to adalimumab-weekly vs. every-other-week or placebo achieved treatment response measured by HS-PGA (19.4% vs. 7.9% or 5.6%; P>.05), by HiSCR (51.6% vs. 24.2% or 27.6%; P>.05), and achieved VAS30 (50.0% vs. 34.3%; P>.05 or 21.2% P<.05; significant for adalimumab-weekly vs. placebo). Four women had serious adverse events (anemia, benign neoplasm, pneumonia, and suicide attempt). There were no fatalities. Women had a similarly acceptable safety profile as the overall study population.
CONCLUSION: In this subpopulation of women with moderate-to-severe HS, a greater proportion achieved reduction in HS severity and pain with adalimumab 40 mg weekly dosing compared with every-other-week or placebo. No new safety signals were identified.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1192-1196.
Breanne Mordorski BA,a Adam J. Friedman MD,b and Leon H. Kircik MDc
Dermatologists frequently create cutaneous defects that heal by second intention, yet there is no universal protocol for wound care in this setting. Several ointments commonly used for wound healing are not cost effective as they contain known contact allergens, contribute to antimicrobial resistance, and do not enhance the healing process. Recent studies indicate that Bensal HP, a commercially available ointment used for a variety of dermatologic conditions, may be useful for wound healing; although clinical data is currently limited. In this single-center open-label pilot study, Bensal HP was evaluated for second intention healing over 8 weeks following either Mohs micrographic surgery or shave skin biopsy in 20 patients. Results indicate that Bensal HP is effective for second intention healing as demonstrated by increased Global Assessment of Efficacy scores and decreased wound measurements, with 16 patients achieving full closure. Patient symptoms overall improved over the study period, and Bensal HP was well tolerated with no adverse effects associated with its use. By providing critical data regarding the safety and efficacy of Bensal HP, this study may provide useful information to guide further assessment in future large-scale comparative wound healing studies.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1197-1202.
Mark A. Strom BS,a Girish C. Mohan MD,b and Peter A. Lio MDa
Dermatologists frequently employ combination therapy to treat various diseases, but the evidence to support the use of such combinations is often lacking. Synergy is an appealing although somewhat ambiguous concept in medicine. Utilizing synergy allows clinicians to provide the most efficacious combination of treatments to patients, while potentially minimizing adverse effects and reducing the development of drug resistance. Definitions of synergy vary, but ultimately converge on finding a therapeutic advantage in combining treatments. Here we discuss the concept of ‘therapeutic synergy’, which can be defined as an increase in the efficacy of a combination of treatments in comparison to any of its individual parts alone. We review the concept of therapeutic synergy in dermatology by discussing some of the evidence regarding combination therapies utilized in the management of atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis, and cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Further meaningful investigation of therapeutic synergy and its applications in dermatology should be undertaken.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1203-1207.
Sila Seremet MD,a* Sunil Abhyankar MD,b* Tiffany J. Herd MD,b and Daniel Aires MDb
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has been used for the treatment of advanced stage or treatment refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) since 1987, and more recently has also been shown to be of benefit for earlier stage resistant CTCL. Complete response rates in prior studies of ECP in early CTCL have ranged from 0% to 40%.
METHODS: We reviewed electronic medical records of all CTCL patients seen in the University of Kansas Cancer Center between June 2007 and May 2011. International review board approval was obtained. Inclusion criteria were (1) early stage CTCL and (2) ECP treatment. Data included demographics, type of intravenous access employed, CTCL subtype, cytogenetic features, adverse events, adjuvant treatments, and survival time in years. Treatment response was assessed via a modified severity weighted assessment tool (mSWAT). Primary outcome measures were response rates to ECP at 6 months and 12 months after beginning treatment.
RESULTS: Of 20 patients (13 female; 7 male), 7 were Stage 1A, 11 were 1B, and 2 were 2A. Seven patients with stable disease and 2 patients with progression at 6 months received adjuvant therapy (PUVA/systemic retinoids/metotrexate/interferon) in addition to ECP. Twelve-month response to ECP was 90%: 15 patients (75%) had complete responses, 3 (15%) had partial responses, 1 had stable disease, and 1 progressed.
CONCLUSION: Used alone or in combination with adjuvant treatments, ECP can be an effective treatment method in early stage CTCL.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1212-1216.
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a neoplastic keratosis and a precursor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
OBJECTIVE: We are presenting data on a novel formulation of 4% 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in an aqueous vehicle cream containing peanut oil (Tolak) with once daily application versus treatment with 5% 5-FU twice daily for 4 weeks.
METHODS: 1) A dose ranging study of 4% 5-FU cream once or twice daily for 2 or 4 weeks and its vehicle, compared to 5% 5-FU cream twice daily for 4 weeks in 121 subjects. 2) A double-blinded multicenter study involving 841 subjects for non-inferiority and safety of 4% 5-FU cream once daily vs 5% 5-FU cream twice daily over 4 weeks with 100% and 75% clinical clearance of AK’s.
RESULTS: 4% 5-FU qd q4wks achieved 100% clearance in 80% and 75% clearance in 100% of subjects vs 75% and 95% respectively with 5% 5-FU bid q4wks. 4% 5-FU qd2wks achieved 100% clearance in 60% and 75% clearance in 85% of subjects. 4% 5-FU qd q4wks recorded 65 adverse events and 30% application site skin irritation versus 71 events and 60% with 5% 5-FU bid q4wks. 4% 5-FU exceeded non-inferiority by 1.32% with sub-analysis for higher percentage of severely affected patients. 4% 5-FU showed 75% clearance of AK’s in 80.5% vs 80.2% for 5% 5-FU with superior tolerability.
CONCLUSIONS: 4% 5-FU cream is a novel, efficacious, superior tolerated once daily topical treatment for better compliance and treatment outcome. The peanut oil component is safe even in peanut-allergic patients.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1218-1224.
Alice B. Gottlieb MD PhD,a Andrew Blauvelt MD MBA,b Jörg C. Prinz MD,c Philemon Papanastasiou PhD,d Rashidkhan Pathan MS,e Judit Nyirady MD MBA,f Todd Fox PharmD ACPR,d Charis Papavassilis MD PhDd
BACKGROUND: Secukinumab, a human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets interleukin-17A, is highly efficacious in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis, starting at early time points, with a sustained effect and a favorable safety profile.
METHODS: Patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were randomized to secukinumab 300 mg, secukinumab 150 mg, or placebo self-administered by prefilled syringe at baseline, weeks 1, 2, and 3, and then every four weeks from week 4 to 48. Efficacy responses (≥ 75/90/100% improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI 75/90/100] and clear/almost clear skin by Investigator’s Global Assessment 2011 modified version [IGA mod 2011 0/1]) were measured to week 52. Patient-reported usability of the prefilled syringe was evaluated by the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire to week 48.
RESULTS: The efficacy of secukinumab increased to week 16 and was maintained to week 52. With secukinumab 300 mg at week 52, PASI 75/90/100 and IGA mod 2011 0/1 responses were achieved by 83.5%/68.0%/47.5% and 71.5% of patients when analyzed by multiple imputation, respectively, and by 75.9%/62.1%/43.1% and 63.8% of patients when analyzed by nonresponder imputation, respectively. With secukinumab 150 mg at week 52, PASI 75/90/100 and IGA mod 2011 0/1 responses were achieved by 63.5%/50.3%/31.1% and 43.6% of patients when analyzed by multiple imputation, respectively, and by 61.0%/49.2%/30.5% and 42.4% of patients when analyzed by nonresponder imputation, respectively. Self-reported acceptability of the prefilled syringe was high throughout the study. The incidence of adverse events (AE) was well balanced between groups, with AEs reported in 74.4% of patients receiving secukinumab 300 mg and 77.3% of patients receiving secukinumab 150 mg. Nasopharyngitis was the most common AE across both secukinumab groups.
CONCLUSION: Self-administration of secukinumab by prefilled syringe was associated with robust and sustained efficacy and a favorable safety profile up to week 52.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1226-1234.
Evelyn J. Cheung MD, Jacquelyn R. Sink MD, and Joseph C. English III MD
Telogen effluvium is one of the most common forms of non-scarring alopecia for which patients present to a dermatologist. It is a challenging disorder to treat and study, primarily owing to its multifactorial etiology which includes both physiologic and non-physiologic factors. Nutritional deficiency has been purported to contribute to hair shedding, and a patient’s clinical history usually aids in directing laboratory evaluation. Many prior studies have either supported or failed to find a correlation between telogen effluvium and deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, in particular, vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with telogen effluvium in the greater Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area, and measured the rates of these deficiencies. Our results demonstrate that the prevalence of vitamin D, ferritin, and zinc deficiencies is non-trivial and therefore justifies including these laboratory studies in initial clinical evaluation.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1235-1237.
Shlomo Chamny MD,a Dan Miron MD,b Nadia Lumelsky MD,c Hana Shalev MD,d Elana Gazal PhD,e Rita Keynan,e Avner Shemer MD,f and Dov Tamarkin PhDe
BACKGROUND: Currently available treatment options for impetigo are limited by either systemic side effects (for oral therapy) or lack of ease of use (for topical ointment). A novel foam formulation of minocycline for topical use may improve convenience and treatment utilization for pediatric patients with impetigo.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topically applied minocycline foam (FMX-102 1% and 4%) in the treatment of impetigo and to determine the optimal therapeutic active ingredient concentration.
METHODS: In this randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, comparative clinical trial, 32 subjects aged ≥2 years with a clinical diagnosis of pure impetigo, impetigo contagiosa, or uncomplicated blistering impetigo were randomized to treatment with FMX-102 1% or 4%, twice daily for 7 days. Subjects were followed for up to 7 days post-treatment.
RESULTS: Clinical cure, defined as ≥80% cured lesions (fully recovered lesions, visually determined by investigators), was achieved by 57.1% and 50.0% of FMX-102 1% and 4% subjects, respectively, at the end of treatment (visit 3). Clinical success, defined as the absence of lesions, or the drying or improvement of treated lesions (decrease in size of affected area, lesion number, or both), was demonstrated in 81.3% and 78.6% of FMX-102 1% and 4% subjects, respectively, following 3 days of treatment (visit 2), in 92.3% and 100% of the respective subjects at the end of treatment, and in 100% in both groups at follow-up (visit 4). Bacteriologic success rates at the end of treatment, defined as complete pathogen eradication, were 85% and 74% in the FMX-102 1% and 4% groups, respectively. The bacteriologic success rate for MRSA infections was 100% (11/11), with no recurrences. Both FMX-102 1% and 4% were considered well tolerated and safe.
CONCLUSION: Topical minocycline foam may be a safe and effective new treatment option for impetigo in children, including those with MRSA.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1238-1243.
Carlos Galzote,a Mini Thomas PhD,b and Mukta Sachdev MDc
BACKGROUND: Ethnic differences in skin sensitivity suggest that greater emphasis be focused on understanding a product’s effect in diverse populations.
OBJECTIVE: The irritation and/or sensitization potential of 8 baby skin care products in Indian adults were evaluated using cumulative irritation tests (CIT) and human repeat insult patch testing (HRIPT) protocols.
PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Healthy males or females aged 18 to 65 years of Indian ethnicity were treated with each of 6 products (cream, hair oil, lotion, body wash, shampoo, and baby soap) using CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 200). Baby powder and baby oil were evaluated by CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 107) in separate studies. CITs were conducted over 14 days; HRIPTs were conducted over 10 weeks.
RESULTS: In both CIT and HRIPT, most products were considered mild, with no irritation. Baby soap and powder elicited reactions in the HRIPT induction phase, with positive challenge phase reactions (3 subjects), but were affirmed to be nonallergenic in the rechallenge phase.
CONCLUSIONS: In these studies, 8 baby skin care products were evaluated by both CIT and HRIPT in Indian adults. The results of the studies indicated that all of the tested products were nonallergenic and nonirritating.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1244-1248.
Michael T. Jarratt MD,a Terry M. Jones MD,b Joan-En Chang-Lin PhD,c Warren Tong PharmD MS,c David R. Berk MD,c Vince Lin PhD,c and Alexandre Kaoukhov MDc
BACKGROUND: Reducing the dosing frequency of topical acne treatments to once daily may improve adherence.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of 3 formulations of once-daily dapsone gel, 7.5% and of twice-daily dapsone gel, 5% over 28 days in patients with moderate acne vulgaris.
METHODS: This phase 1, multicenter, parallel-group study randomized males and females aged 16 to 35 years to 1 of 3 dapsone gel, 7.5% formulations (DAP-11078, DAP-11079, or DAP-11080 double-blind; applied once daily) or to dapsone gel, 5% (investigator-blinded only, applied twice-daily). Blood samples were collected for PK assessments of dapsone and its metabolites, N-acetyl dapsone (NAD) and dapsone hydroxylamine (DHA), before the morning dose on days 1, 7, 14, 18, 21, 26, 27, and 28, and at several follow-up time points (days 29–32). Safety profile assessments included adverse events (AEs), physical examinations, laboratory tests, and local tolerability assessments.
RESULTS: Steady-state dapsone, NAD, and DHA concentrations were reached within 7 days of the first dose in all treatment groups. Daily systemic exposures of the 3 dapsone gel, 7.5% formulations were approximately 25% to 40% lower than that for dapsone gel, 5%, and these differences were statistically significant. Among the 3 dapsone gel, 7.5% formulations, the highest daily exposure of dapsone (per the AUC) was observed with DAP-11080, with respective Cmax and AUC0-24 being approximately 28.6% and 28.7% lower relative to dapsone gel, 5%.
Most AEs were mild to moderate in intensity. The safety profiles for all 3 formulations of once-daily dapsone, 7.5% gel and twice-daily dapsone gel, 5% were similar following 28 days of topical administration. All 4 dapsone formulations were well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated lower systemic exposure with all 3 once-daily dapsone gel, 7.5% formulations than with twice-daily dapsone gel, 5%. All 4 formulations were well tolerated and demonstrated similar safety profiles.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1250-1259.
Aditya K. Gupta MD PhD FRCPC a,b and Andrew Korotzer PhDc
BACKGROUND: Although a completely normal nail would be the ideal outcome when treating onychomycosis, this is not always achievable and long treatment courses or patient expectations can impact patient adherence.
METHODS: We analyzed cure rates from a number of subpopulations derived from the two pivotal phase III studies with efinaconazole topical solution (10%) to provide some insights into clinically meaningful treatment outcomes and support for effective long-term management programs.
RESULTS: Efinaconazole affords greater efficacy in milder disease, female patients, and those patients whose disease is relatively recent and confined to the great toenail, following 48 weeks’ treatment. With longer treatment courses, similar results may be achieved in other subpopulations. Clinically meaningful results (a 40% improvement in the involvement of the diseased nail) were achieved with efinaconazole within six months in half the patients treated, and in over 90% of patients by study end. A greater proportion of female patients achieved clinically meaningful results at six months, although treatment success did not seem to be influenced by baseline disease severity.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients treated with efinaconazole could expect to see clinically meaningful results within six months.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1260-1266.