Sarah Y. Lee BA,a Judy H. Borovicka MD,a Jaimee S. Holbrook MD,a Mary J. Kwasny ScD,b Dennis P. West PhD,a and Roopal V. Kundu MDa
BACKGROUND: The Internet is a commonly utilized health information resource that provides access to information of varying quality.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the use of the Internet as a health information resource within a keloid patient population and the effects of an educational intervention on patient knowledge about keloids.
METHODS: A consecutive convenience sample of subjects completed a questionnaire on keloid-related Internet use and on personal and family history of keloids. Participants listened to a short educational intervention on keloid-related topics followed by assessment of relevant knowledge at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 3 months after the intervention.
RESULTS: Among 40 participants, 55% reported having used the Internet to obtain keloid-related information. Subjects who had used the Internet to obtain keloid-related information had baseline knowledge similar to those who had not. When subjects were assessed immediately and 3 months postintervention, the intervention improved knowledge that not all raised scars are keloids, that keloids are not cancerous, and that certain areas of the body are more prone to keloid formation. The proportion of subjects who reported being less likely to obtain piercings or tattoos because of the intervention was 80% and 75%, respectively.
LIMITATIONS: This study was performed at a single academic center.
CONCLUSION: The Internet is a commonly used information resource for keloid-prone individuals, but keloid-related knowledge was not greater among Internet keloid-related information seekers. A very short educational intervention benefits keloid-prone individuals by improving knowledge about keloid prevention and treatment and by discouraging them from obtaining piercings and tattoos.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):397-402.
Porcia B. Love MDa and Roopal V. Kundu MDb
Keloids are the result of an overgrowth of dense fibrous tissue that usually develops after healing of a skin injury. Despite their common occurrence, keloids remain one of the most challenging dermatologic conditions to successfully treat. They are often symptomatic, do not usually regress spontaneously, and tend to recur after excision. Prevention of keloids is essential. A previous history of keloid development should be elicited. Wound closure with minimal tension and application of adjunctive therapies before abnormal healing is paramount. Education regarding wound care should be given in order to prevent infection and foreign body reactions. Elective surgery should be avoided in patients predisposed to developing keloids. In this article, we review recent advances in medical and surgical treatment of keloids.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):403-409.
Alyssa Daniel MD,a Cheryl J. Gustafson MD PA-C,a Pamela J. Zupkosky BS,b Anne Candido BSME,b Helen R. Kemp PhD,b Greg Russell MS,c and Amy McMichael MDa
BACKGROUND: Pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB) is an inflammatory condition of the face with a clinical presentation of papules in the beard area with occasional pustules or hypertrophic scarring, all of which develop in response to shaving. Prevalent in African American men, a limited amount of data have been published on the shave outcomes as they relate to clinically measurable responses and patient satisfaction scoring. The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a daily shaving regimen and advanced shaving products on exacerbation of lesions and symptoms in patients with PFB.
METHODS: Ninety African American men were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups shaving 2 to 3 times per week with standard products (control group), shaving daily with standard products (daily standard group) or shaving daily with advanced products (daily advanced). The number of pustules, papules, ingrown hairs, and investigator's assessment of severity and subjective symptoms of itching and burning/stinging were assessed at baseline, week 6, and week 12. The response to treatment was also assessed by the investigator and the subject at weeks 6 and 12. Secondary measures including questionnaires regarding baseline shave practices were also correlated with outcomes variables.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences noted between the 3 groups for papule (P=.32) or pustule (P=.46) count for the 12-week study. However, there was a significant mean papule reduction from baseline detected for both the control and daily advanced groups. In addition, compared to baseline, there was a significant reduction in ingrown hairs for the control group, and a directional reduction in ingrown hairs for the daily advanced group. There were significant group differences between the control group and both daily shaving groups, with the control group seeing significantly fewer ingrown hairs (P=.005 for control vs daily standard group and P=.04 for control vs daily advanced group). There were no significant group differences among the 3 groups for investigator-graded severity (P=.43) and response to treatment (P=.51). There was a significant perceived improvement in the response to treatment (P=.007) and itching (P=.002) for the daily advanced group vs the control group.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):410-418.
Ife J. Rodney MD, Oge C. Onwudiwe MD, Valerie D. Callender MD, and Rebat M. Halder MD
Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):420-427.
Charlotte M. Clark MD MS, Jonathan I. Silverberg MD PhD MPH, and Andrew F. Alexis MD MPH
BACKGROUND: Laser resurfacing in patients with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes (SPT) IV to VI is associated with a higher risk of pigmentary alteration. There is a paucity of studies evaluating optimum treatment parameters for fractional lasers in darkly pigmented skin types.
METHODS: This is a retrospective review of medical records for patients with SPT IV to VI who were treated with a 1,550 nm erbium-doped fractional nonablative laser (Fraxel Re:Store SR 1550; Solta Medical, Hayword, CA). Data were collected from patient charts and the clinic laser logbook from January 2008 to January 2012. The frequency of treatment-associated postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and treatment settings used were evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 115 total laser sessions (45 patients) were included in our analysis. Five of the sessions (4%) were accompanied by PIH, 2 of which occurred in a single patient. Only 1 episode of PIH lasted longer than 1 month (2 months). Two of the 5 cases had only transient PIH (≤7 days), one of which was reported by the patient and not clinically evident on examination.
CONCLUSION: The 1,550 nm erbium-doped fractional laser is well tolerated in SPT IV to VI. Fractional laser resurfacing, with the settings used and pretreatment and posttreatment hydroquinone 4% cream, was associated with a low risk of PIH in darker skin types.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):428-431.
Heather C. Woolery-Lloyd MD, Jonette Keri MD, and Stefan Doig MD
In this review, we examine published data reporting the efficacy of pharmaceutical agents to treat associated postinflammatory hyperpigmentation commonly seen in skin of color. Retinoids and azelaic acid have been widely used to treat acne. Now there are increasing data describing their use in skin of color for the treatment of both acne and the subsequent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Historically, some dermatologists have been hesitant to use retinoids in skin of color because of perceived hypersensitivity in this patient population. However, recent data support the use of retinoids and azelaic acid in skin of color as both safe and beneficial.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):434-437.
Steven R. Feldman MD PhD,a Cary P. Werner MS,b and Alessandra B. Alió Saenz MDb
BACKGROUND: Tazarotene 0.1% gel and cream are effective topical treatments for acne. Tazarotene foam, 0.1% was developed to provide an alternative, safe, and effective formulation.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of tazarotene foam, 0.1% in adults and adolescents with acne vulgaris.
METHODS: Two randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group studies were conducted at 39 centers in the United States and Canada. The first study involved 744 participants and the second 742, aged 12 to 45 years, who were randomized to receive treatment with either tazarotene foam, 0.1% or vehicle foam once daily for 12 weeks. Lesion counts, Investigator's Static Global Assessments (ISGA), and Subject's Global Assessments (SGA) were evaluated at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. Tolerability was monitored throughout the study.
RESULTS: At week 12 in both studies, treatment with tazarotene foam led to greater decreases from baseline in mean absolute and percentage change in lesion counts (noninflammatory, inflammatory, and total), greater proportion of participants with ≥2-grade improvement in ISGA score, and greater proportion of participants with ISGA score of 0 or 1 than vehicle treatment (P<.001 for all). Only application-site skin irritation and dryness were reported by >5% of participants in active treatment groups in both studies.
LIMITATIONS: The efficacy and tolerability of tazarotene foam were not compared directly with those of other formulations.
CONCLUSION: Tazarotene foam, 0.1% significantly reduced the number and severity of acne lesions after 12 weeks and had a safe and acceptable tolerability profile.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):438-446.
Elmer David MD,a Hanan Tanuos MD,a Timothy Sullivan MD,b Albert Yan MD,c and Leon H. Kircik MDd-f
This study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group pilot study of efficacy and tolerability of a nonsteroidal cream (Promiseb® Topical Cream; Promius Pharma, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ) for treatment of cradle cap when applied topically twice daily for up to 14 days in 42 pediatric subjects. Both treatments were similarly effective in reducing disease severity, as measured by success with Investigator's Global Assessment scores at day 7 or end of treatment, with 96% of subjects achieving success in the nonsteroidal cream group and 92% of subjects achieving success in the placebo cream group. Both treatments resulted in significant reductions from baseline in terms of erythema, crusting, scaling, and oiliness (P<.05), with no significant difference between treatments. There was a significant difference (P=.03) between treatment groups for percent reduction in scaling at the end of treatment, with a 90% reduction in the nonsteroidal cream group compared with a 58% reduction in the placebo cream group. All subjects in both groups had an overall safety score of excellent, and there were no adverse events related to treatment for either group.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):448-452.
Sabrina Guillen Fabi MD,a Joel L. Cohen MD,b Jennifer D. Peterson MD,c Monika G. Kiripolsky MD,d and Mitchel P. Goldman MDa,e
BACKGROUND: Growth factors (GFs) are chemical messengers that regulate specific cellular activities such as cell proliferation and formation of the extracellular matrix. GFs may be derived from a variety of sources, including animals.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of a topical antiphotoaging product containing secretions of the snail Cryptomphalus aspersa (SCA) for the improvement of facial rhytides.
MATERIALS and METHODS: This was a 2-center, double-blind, randomized, 14-week study in which 25 patients with moderate to severe facial photodamage were treated with an emulsion (with 8% SCA) and liquid serum (with 40% SCA) on one side of the face and placebo on the contralateral side for 12 weeks. Silicone skin impressions of periocular rhytides were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Patient and physician assessments were also performed at 8, 12, and 14 weeks.
RESULTS: Periocular rhytides on the active ingredient side showed significant improvement after 12 weeks (P=.03) and improved texture to a greater degree than placebo at 8 and 12 weeks, as well as 2 weeks after discontinuing the product (14 weeks).
CONCLUSION: Daily application of topical products containing SCA proved effective and well tolerated for improvement in coarse periocular rhytides and fine facial rhytides. Subjects noted a significant degree of improvement in fines lines at the 8-week time point on the SCA-treated side (P≤.05) but did not report a significant difference in the quality of their skin.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):453-457.
Stanley S. Shapiro PhD,a Miri Seiberg PhD,b and Curtis A. Cole PhDc
The 1925 classical observation that vitamin A deficiency leads to squamous metaplasia and epithelial keratinization, coupled with the later finding that excess vitamin A inhibits keratinization of chick embryo skin, set the foundation for the potential therapeutic use of retinoids in cutaneous conditions of keratinization. Significant progress has since been made understanding the molecular biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of vitamin A and its derivatives, collectively named retinoids. Natural and synthetic retinoids are now routinely used to treat acne, psoriasis, skin keratinization disorders, and photodamage. Retinoids also inhibit tumor formation and skin cancer development in experimental systems and in humans. Retinol and retinyl palmitate (RP) are found in cosmetic products and in foods and dietary supplements, which are all considered safe, by inclusion in the Generally Recognized as Safe Substances Database. However, the safety of topical retinoids was questioned in one publication and in a recent National Toxicology Program report of RP-containing topical preparations, suggesting the possible earlier onset of ultraviolet-induced squamous cell carcinomas in the hairless mouse photocarcinogenesis model. This suggestion contradicts a large body of data indicating that topical retinoids are chemoprotective in humans, and it was immediately challenged by new reviews on the safety of RP in general and within sunscreens. This paper will review the preclinical and clinical data supporting the safety and chemopreventive activity of retinoids, with an emphasis on RP, and will examine the experimental systems used to evaluate the safety of topical vitamin A preparations in order to provide perspective relative to human skin.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):458-463.
Yan Wu MD PhD,a* Xin Zheng,a* Xue-Gang Xu MD,a Yuan-Hong Li MD PhD,a Bin Wang PhD,a Xing-Hua Gao MD PhD,a Hong-Duo Chen MD,a Margarita Yatskayer MS,b and Christian Oresajo PhDb,c
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether a topical antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid can protect solar-simulated ultraviolet irradiation (ssUVR)-induced acute photodamage in human skin.
METHOD: Twelve healthy female Chinese subjects were enrolled in this study. Four unexposed sites on dorsal skin were marked for the experiment. The products containing antioxidant complex and vehicle were applied onto 2 sites, respectively, for 4 consecutive days. On day 4, the antioxidant complex-treated site, the vehicle-treated site, and the untreated site (positive control) received ssUVR (5 times the minimal erythema dose). The fourth site (negative control) received neither ssUVR nor treatment. Digital photographs were taken, and skin color was measured pre- and postirradiation. Skin biopsies were obtained 24 hours after exposure to ssUVR, for hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining.
RESULTS: A single, 5 times the minimal erythema dose of ssUVR substantially induced large amounts of sunburn cell formation, thymine dimer formation, overexpression of p53 protein, and depletion of CD1a+ Langerhans cells. The antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid conferred significant protection against biological events compared with other irradiated sites.
CONCLUSION: A topical antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid has potential photoprotective effects against ssUVR-induced acute photodamage in human skin.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):464-468.
Amir Moradi MD,a Azadeh Shirazi MD,b and Jeanette Moradi CRCa
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to examine the use and persistency of small gel particle hyaluronic acid (SGP-HA) filler (Restylane®; Medicis Aesthetics Inc, Scottsdale, AZ) in the treatment of temporal fossa volumization over a 12-month follow-up, and determine local adverse events (AEs).
STUDY DESIGN: This is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved, blinded, prospective, single-center, open-label trial enrolling 20 subjects undergoing subcutaneous injection of SGP-HA for rejuvenation of the temples. Primary outcomes were measured using a standardized grading system—the Hollowness Severity Rating Scale (HSRS)—at each visit by the treating investigator, a blinded physician assessment of randomized photos using the HSRS, and patient questionnaires over a 12-month period. AEs were monitored by the investigator and via patient diaries.
RESULTS: At weeks 4, 12, and 24, and month 12, all graders (ie, investigator, blinded physician assessor, and patients) reported improvement overall in hollowness. At baseline, temporal fossa hollowness was measured as moderate to severe. At week 4 to month 12, temporal fossa was graded at none or only mild hollowness. No touch-ups were necessary at week 4 on all subjects. All AEs were mild or moderate and resolved within 2 weeks.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates clinically significant efficacy and safety in the use of Restylane for temple augmentation and, thus, facial rejuventation.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):470-475.
Ana Rita Rodrigues-Barata MD and Francisco M. Camacho-Martínez MD
BACKGROUND: Soft tissue augmentation is one of the most frequent techniques in cosmetic dermatology. Nowadays, there are a high number of available materials. Nonanimal hyaluronic acid (HA) is one of most useful fillers for lip augmentation and for treating nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and the dynamic wrinkles of the upper face.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the type and management of undesirable effects of nonanimal reticulated or stabilized HA observed in our cosmetic unit in the past 3 years.
MATERIALS and METHODS: The consecutive patients using HA attending to our clinic in the past 3 years were divided into 3 categories, according to the time of presentation of the adverse reactions: immediate, early, and late-onset complications. All patients were treated.
RESULTS: Twenty-three patients presented to our clinic complaining of complications after soft tissue augmentation with HA. Ten patients presented immediate-onset complications, 8 showed early-onset complications, and 5 cases complaint of late-onset complications. Treatment of the first group consisted of hyaluronidase injection, massage, and topical antibiotics. Early- and late-onset complications were treated with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. All patients improved, with the exception of a woman with recurrent granulomas.
CONCLUSION: Generally, undesirable effects of HA (immediate, early, or late onset) are not frequent, and when present, they improve if treated properly. Physicians need to be aware of these possible adverse events in order to establish proper treatment and prevent scarring or other sequelae.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):e59-e62.
Hyok Bu Kwon MD,a Yunseok Choi MD,a Hwa Jung Kim MD,b and Ai-Young Lee MDa
BACKGROUND: Topical all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) prevents skin atrophy induced by long-term use of topical corticosteroids, without abrogating their anti-inflammatory effects.
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of tretinoin plus topical corticosteroids (tretinoin plus) for repigmentation in patients with vitiligo.
METHODS: A placebo-controlled, paired-comparison, left-right study was conducted for a period of 6 months on tretinoin plus and the vehicle plus the same topical corticosteroid (vehicle plus) treatment in 50 patients diagnosed with generalized vitiligo. Clinical responses were assessed using the computerized analysis, and the results were compared with the visual analysis.
RESULTS: The percentage agreement between the 2 analyses was 91.8%. Among 49 participants who successfully completed this study, 27 (55%) showed a better response to tretinoin plus than to vehicle plus. The improved response was noted at an early stage of treatment, during the first 3 months in 60% of patients.
CONCLUSION: Combined therapy with tretinoin plus topical corticosteroids is safe and effective and provides another option for treatment of patients with vitiligo.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):e63-e67.
Khalifa E. Sharquie MD PhD,a Raad M. A. Helmi BDS PhD,b Adil A. Noiami MD DDV FICMS,c Raafa K. Al-Hayani MD DDV,d and Mohand A. A. Kadhom BDS MSce
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term remission efficacy and safety of isotretinoin in the treatment of Behcet's disease (BD).
PATIENTS and METHODS: This single-blind, controlled therapeutic study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology at Baghdad Teaching Hospital from February 2011 to January 2012. Thirty patients with BD were included in this work. Each patient received isotretinoin 20 mg orally once daily for 3 months. They were assessed at week 2 and then monthly depending on the Clinical Manifestation Index (CMI) and to record any side effects. At week 12, isotretinoin was stopped and patients were given placebo therapy in a form of glucose capsules for another 3 months.
RESULTS: Thirty patients were treated, 14 (46.6%) males and 16 (53.3%) females, with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Their ages ranged from 16 to 64 years (mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 38.4 +/- 10.9 years). During the first 3 months of therapy, the pathergy test, oral pathergy test, and C-reactive protein were significantly minimized. The CMI before isotretinoin therapy ranged between 2 and 8 (mean +/- SD, 4.933 +/- 1.91). After therapy, within the first 14 days, the mean CMI started to decline to a lower level, and it continued to decline significantly until week 12. It then started to increase through week 4 of placebo therapy, but remained statistically significant until the second month of placebo therapy. Isotretinoin therapy also had a statistically significant effect in reducing oral ulcers and skin manifestations.
CONCLUSION: Isotretinoin is an effective therapeutic and prophylactic drug in the management of BD.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):e68-e73.