Volume 11 | Issue 8
Flor A. Mayoral MD|No abstract details for the moment.
Steven R. Feldman MD|No abstract details for the moment.
Ustekinumab is effective in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune conditions including psoriasis. As a relatively new therapeutic agent, its long-term effects are still under investigation. Short-term studies, however, have revealed ustekinumab to be generally well tolerated and safe. This article provides a comprehensive review of the pharmacokinetics of ustekinumab, its safety profile, adverse effects, and use in pregnancy. The effect of diabetes and prior immunosuppressant therapy is also addressed.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):907-910.
Background: Inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. New therapies are targeting Janus kinases (JAKs), enzymes involved with transduction of cytokine receptor signaling.
Objective: Review the utility of JAK inhibitors in the treatment of psoriasis.
Methods: A review was performed using PubMed and Google to identify research relevant to the treatment of psoriasis using JAK inhibitors.
Results: In a CD18 mutant PL/J mouse model with T-cell dependent psoriasiform skin disease, the JAK inhibitor R348 reduced skin inflammation, with reductions in CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T-cell infiltration and systemic decreases of IL-17, IL-19, IL-22, IL-23 and TNF-α. Two JAK inhibitors, CP-690,550 (tasocitinib) and INCB018424 (ruxolitinib), were effective in psoriasis clinical trials. In a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, dose escalation trial for plaque psoriasis, CP-690,050 led to improvements in Psoriatic Lesion Severity Sum score at doses greater than 5 mg. A phase 2 trial showed CP-690,050 administered at 2, 5, and 15 mg twice daily resulted in a 75% reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) in 25%, 40.8%, and 66.7% of patients, respectively, for moderate to severe psoriasis. A phase 3 study of CP-690,550 for plaque psoriasis was begun in September 2010 (NCT01163253). INCB018424, another JAK inhibitor, was used topically at 3 doses (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%) in a phase 2B, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, resulting in improved total lesion score, global assessment, and PASI for all doses.
Conclusion: Janus Kinase inhibitors are promising potential therapeutic options for psoriasis.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):913-918.
Digital Videography Assessment of Patients' Experiences Using Adapalene-Benzoyl Peroxide Gel in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris
Background: Acne profoundly affects patients' lives, but the effect of treatment is not fully characterized.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore patients' experiences and viewpoints regarding treatment for mild to moderate acne vulgaris.
Methods: This was an open-label, single-center study of 30 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris, treated with adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (adapalene-BPO gel) once daily for 12 weeks. An acne-specific quality of life questionnaire (Acne-QoL©) was conducted. Each subject's global assessment (SGA) was recorded at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Photographs were taken and video interviews were recorded. Local tolerability assessments and incidence of adverse events were documented.
Results: A statistically significant number of patients were clear/almost clear (treatment success) at week 12 (P<.001). At week 12, patients experienced a 44.1% and 57.1% mean reduction in inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions, respectively. By week 12, 67% of the patients in the video population (n=27) believed they had achieved treatment success (P<.001). Patients reported higher Acne-QoL© scores at week 12 compared to baseline, indicating better quality of life after treatment with adapalene-BPO gel (P<.001 for all domains). No unexpected adverse or serious adverse events were reported.
Limitations: This was an open-label study of 12 weeks duration.
Conclusion: Overall, patients with mild to moderate acne treated with adapalene-BPO gel showed significant improvement in disease severity and quality of life. The video recordings chronicled the patients' experiences throughout the treatment process.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):919-925.
A Randomized Controlled Study of Combination Therapy With Alefacept and Narrow Band UVB Phototherapy (UVB) for Moderate to Severe Psoriasis: Efficacy, Onset, and Duration of ResponseBackground: Alefacept is an effective intermittent treatment for psoriasis that can provide long-lasting remissions. Combination therapy with narrow-band ultraviolet B (nbUVB) phototherapy may enhance treatment outcomes and accelerate the onset of clinical response.
Objective: To assess the efficacy of alefacept in combination with nbUVB phototherapy compared to alefacept alone in subjects with moderate to severe psoriasis.
Methods: Ninety-eight adults with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomized to treatment with alefacept 15 mg intramuscularly (IM) once weekly for 12 weeks alone or in combination with three times weekly nbUVB treatments in this prospective, open-label, assessor-blinded, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group, 36-week study.
Results: A statistically significantly greater proportion of subjects in the alefacept plus nbUVB arm achieved the primary endpoint of PASI 75 at week 16 compared to subjects in the alefacept alone arm (44.9% vs 22.5%, P=0.032). Secondary outcomes were also in favor of the alefacept plus nbUVB group, including the proportion of subjects achieving a Physician Global Assessment (PGA) score of clear or almost clear at any time during the study (59.2% vs 34.7%, P=0.026) and reduction in percent body surface area (BSA) involved with psoriasis at week 16 (13.4% vs 8.0%, P<0.001). The onset of clinical response was significantly faster in the combination therapy group compared to monotherapy (mean time to PASI 75: 82 vs 107 days, P=0.007). Both treatments were generally well tolerated.
Limitations: Open-label, assessor-blinded study without a phototherapy-only treatment arm.
Conclusion: The addition of nbUVB to treatment with alefacept significantly enhanced and accelerated the clinical benefits of alefacept therapy and was generally safe and well-tolerated.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):929-937.
Nail psoriasis appears to be an important source of psoriatic morbidity through physical impairment, pain, and cosmetic disturbances. Conventional treatment is often unsatisfactory. A systematic review of studies reporting the effect of TNF-α inhibitors and related drugs on nail psoriasis using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) as the outcome measure was therefore made. Data are available from randomized controlled trials (RCT) where NAPSI has been studied as a secondary outcome, as well as from case-series in which NAPSI has been the primary outcome studies suggest that adalimumab, briakinumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximumab, and ustekinumab all improve NAPSI scores. No direct comparative RCTs are available in which NAPSI scores have been reported. The data further suggest that changes in NAPSI mirror changes in disease severity of other psoriatic manifestations, that is, in psoriatic arthritis and skin psoriasis. The effect only appears to be delayed due to the rate of growth of the nail plate.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):939-942.
Ustekinumab Improves Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean and Taiwanese Patients With Moderate to Severe Psoriasis: Results from the PEARL TrialBackground: The PEARL study showed that the proportion of psoriasis patients achieving the primary endpoint (at least 75% improvement from baseline to week 12 in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) was significantly higher in ustekinumab-treated patients compared with placebo. There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of psoriasis and its treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Asian patients.
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ustekinumab on HRQoL in Korean/Taiwanese patients with moderate to severe psoriasis enrolled in the phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled PEARL study.
Methods: In the PEARL study, 121 patients were randomized to receive ustekinumab 45 mg at weeks 0, 4, and 16 (n=61) or placebo at weeks 0 and 4 with crossover to ustekinumab at weeks 12 and 16 (n=60). A major secondary endpoint was the change in Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) from baseline at week 12. Other endpoints included the change in individual DLQI domains, proportion of patients achieving DLQI ≤ 1 (no negative effect), and proportion of patients achieving ≥ 5-point reduction in DLQI (clinically meaningful improvement) at week 12.
Results: At baseline, psoriasis had a very large effect on HRQoL (average DLQI, 15.7). At week 12, patients treated with ustekinumab 45 mg had significantly greater improvement from baseline in DLQI scores compared with placebo (mean decrease, 11.2 vs 0.5 (P<0.001). Likewise, 32.2% and 1.7% of patients receiving ustekinumab 45 mg and placebo, respectively, achieved a DLQI ≤ 1, and 81.4% and 18.3% achieved ≥5-point reduction (both P<0.001 vs placebo). Individual DLQI domains in the ustekinumab group were significantly improved compared with placebo (P<0.001). For ustekinumab-randomized patients, HRQoL improvements were sustained through week 28. Placebo patients who crossed over to ustekinumab experienced similar improvements compared with those randomized to ustekinumab.
Conclusions: Ustekinumab significantly improves HRQoL in Korean/Taiwanese patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):943-949.
Open Label Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Re-Treatment With Etanercept in Patients With PsoriasisBackground: Etanercept has been used to treat chronic plaque psoriasis. Previously reported data demonstrated that some patients experienced secondary failure and frequently rotational-switch therapy is used. The re-treatment with etanercept as part of the rotational therapy could be considered as another safe and efficient therapeutic approach.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the re-treatment with etanercept in patients with a history of etanercept use with good response and secondary loss of efficacy.
Methods: This is an open label prospective study involving 20 patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, who had been initially treated with etanercept and were re-treated after a variable interval with 50 mg BIW for 12 weeks.
Results: At week 12 of etanercept re-treatment, 13 of 20 patients (65%) achieved a PGA score of 2 or less and 40% (8 of 20), achieved a PGA score of 0 to 1. Etanercept was well tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported.
Limitations: Our study involved a small number of patients. Failure of etanercept was establish by patient's history. However we were able to correlate such failure from our medical records in 17 patients.
Conclusions: Re-treatment with etanercept, after secondary loss of efficacy should be considered in patients with psoriasis if satisfactory therapy cannot be achieved with other therapeutic regimens.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):950-954.
Background: Psoriasis is among the top dermatologic diagnoses for older adult patients, and the number of older adult psoriasis patients is expected to rise.
Purpose: To characterize trends in older adult psoriasis health care practices of US ambulatory physician offices from 1993 to 2009.
Methods: We used data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to assess demographics, specialties seen, and treatment in visits by older adult patients, 55 years of age and older.
Results: There were approximately 14.1 million outpatient visits for psoriasis among the older adult population during the study period. Older adult psoriasis patients were 52.4% female and 47.6% male. The most frequent older adult age group seen for psoriasis was the 55 to 64 year age group. Dermatologists saw 69.3% of patients, internists saw 14.5%, and general and family practitioners saw 11.6%. Topical corticosteroids were the most frequently prescribed medications. Dermatologists preferred clobetasol whereas non-dermatologists more commonly prescribed betamethasone. For both the 18 to 54 year age group and the 55 and older group, the leading 7 out of 10 medications prescribed were topical corticosteroids and calcipotriene. However, etanercept, coal tar, and fluocinolone were among the leading medications in the younger group but not in the 55 and older group.
Conclusions: Treatment approach for older adult psoriasis patients showed some differences among medical specialties and among the younger and older age groups. Further research specific to older adult psoriasis patients is needed to determine optimal treatment strategies for this patient population.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):957-962.
Efficacy and Tolerability of Two Commercial Hyperpigmentation Kits in the Treatment of Facial Hyperpigmentation and Photo-AgingBackground: Hyperpigmentary disorders are common aesthetic skin conditions that can be very concerning to patients and both challenging and time-consuming for the physician to treat. Several companies commercialize hyperpigmentation kits for the lightening of dark spots and improvement of overall skin dyschromia. Unfortunately, clinical data from controlled studies to support the efficacy and tolerability of these kits are typically lacking
Objective: This investigator-blinded, randomized trial was undertaken to compare two commercial hyperpigmentation systems (kits) used for the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation and photo-aging.
Methods: Female subjects with at least mild facial hyperpigmentation and photo-aging were randomized to treatment with either the four product SkinMedica (SKM) regimen or the 7-product Obagi (OMP) regimen. Evaluations were conducted at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated by the blinded investigator for clinical efficacy and tolerability using grading scales. Standardized digital photographs were taken at baseline and week 12. Self-assessment questionnaires were completed at week 12. Thirty-five females (SKM=17, OMP=18) completed the 12-week study.
Results: Both treatment regimens showed a significant improvement at week 12 (compared to baseline) for Overall Hyperpigmentation, Global Photo-aging and Sallowness. At week 12, there was no significant difference between treatment groups in Global Response to Treatment. Tolerability was good for both regimens based on investigator assessments. Subject self-assessments showed no consistent differences in efficacy between the two regimens. Similarly, there was no significant difference in subject satisfaction or intent to continue use between the two regimens.
Conclusion: This clinical study demonstrated that both systems were equally effective at reducing hyperpigmentation and global photo-aging in females with mottled pigmentation and photodamaged facial skin.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):964-968.
Background: Current topical therapies for cold sores are only marginally beneficial due to poor skin penetration. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a novel topical antiviral nanoemulsion (NB-001) with high tissue bioavailability.
Objectives: The primary endpoint was the time to lesion healing.
Methods: 482 subjects with recurrent cold sores were randomized to self-initiate treatment with either vehicle or NB-001 (0.1%, 0.3% or 0.5%) at the first signs or symptoms of a cold sore episode. Lotion was applied 5 times per day, approximately 3 to 4 hours apart, for 4 days. Time to lesion healing was correlated with NB-001 bioavailability determined in human cadaver skin.
Results: Subjects treated with 0.3% NB-001 showed a 1.3-day improvement in the mean time to healing compared to vehicle (P=0.006). This was consistent with human cadaver skin data indicating that the 0.3% nanoemulsion had the highest bioavailability, compared to 0.1% and 0.5% emulsions. No significant safety or dermal irritation concerns or systemic absorption were noted with any of the doses.
Conclusions: Topical NB-001 (0.3%) was well tolerated and highly efficacious in shortening the time to healing of cold sores. The improvement in time to healing was similar to that reported for oral nucleoside analogues, but without systemic exposure. Topical agents for recurrent herpes labialis (cold sores) reduce healing time by one half day, compared to oral therapies that speed healing by a day or more. A topical antiviral nanoemulsion was well tolerated and improved cold sore healing time by over a day compared to vehicle control. Nanoemulsion (NB-001) could represent a more efficacious topical treatment for recurrent cold sores.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):970-977.
Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive drug that acts selectively on T-cells by inhibiting calcineurin phosphorylase. It has been used in dermatology since its approval for US Food and Drug Administration in 1997 for the use in psoriasis. While indicated only for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, cyclosporine has also been used as an off-label drug for the treatment of various inflammatory skin conditions, including atopic dermatitis, blistering disorders, and connective tissue diseases. In this article, we review the use of cyclosporine in dermatology.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):979-987.
Repair of full thickness defects in the lower eyelid following extirpation of malignant tumors presents a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. There are several techniques to choose from, depending on the defect's size and location.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):988-990.
Treatment of Psoriasis and Long-term Maintenance Using 308 nm Excimer Laser, Clobetasol Spray, and Calcitriol Ointment: A Case SeriesPsoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by thickened red plaques covered with silvery scales. Excimer laser therapy is a cutting-edge advancement in UVB phototherapy. In contrast to traditional phototherapy, the 308 nm excimer laser only targets psoriasis plaques, while it spares uninvolved skin. It allows for treatment with a supra-erythmogenic dose of UVB irradiation. Targeted UVB therapy is a possible treatment especially for many who have failed topical treatments, systemic therapy, and traditional phototherapy. For safe and effective psoriasis treatment, a combination of therapies may be used, including a combination of laser treatment with topical medications. We present two cases demonstrating effective treatment with excimer laser in conjunction with clobetasol spray and calcitriol ointment for 12 weeks. Long-term near-clearance of psoriasis was sustained after 6 months and one-year follow up periods without further therapy.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):994-996.
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal disorder and a major cause of mental retardation. Down syndrome phenotype is complex and may present a combination of dysmorphic features, congenital heart disease and immunological deficiency. Psoriasis it has been noted to be 0.5%-8% in patients with DS and numerous factors can limit the use of therapeutic options, in particular long-term organ-specific toxicity, and the risk of opportunistic infections. It is still debated whether the use of biologics in the treatment of DS-related psoriasis is safe. We have valuated the efficacy and safety of ustekinumab treatment in-patient with DS suffering from plaque type psoriasis. A 31-year-old patient suffering from plaque type psoriasis since the age of 14, showed a PASI score of 12 after the failure of anti-TNF agents. We switched the patient to ustekinumab treatment at the standard dose of 45 mg subcutaneously initially and 4 weeks later, followed by 45 mg every 12 weeks. The patient showed a significant improvement of the PASI score already after 4 weeks of treatment and further improvements were observed throughout the treatment. We report the first case of DS-correlated psoriasis patient treated for a long-term period with various biologics, showing a satisfactory safety profile undergoing treatment. In our experience, ustekinumab has demonstrated a high efficacy, relatively rapid onset of action, favorable safety profile, and can be considered a good treatment option even after failure to respond to other biologic therapies in patient with DS.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(8):1000-1002.
RESIDENT ROUNDS: PART I
History of Howard University Hospital Department of Dermatology and Residency ProgramResident Rounds is a section of the JDD dedicated to highlighting various dermatology departments with residency training programs. Resident Rounds includes three sections: (1) a program spotlight, highlighting pertinent information about the department and residency training program; (2) a section presenting study materials used by residents at the program; and (3) a section designed to highlight recent interesting cases seen at the institution. This issue of Resident Rounds features the Howard University Hospital Department of Dermatology and Residency Program. The editor of Resident Rounds is Omar A. Ibrahimi MD PhD. He is currently the Director of Cutaneous Laser and Cosmetic Surgery and a Mohs surgeon at the University of Connecticut. Dr. Ibrahimi is also a Visiting Scientist at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School. If you are interested in highlighting your training program in a future issue, please contact Dr. Ibrahimi at OIbrahimi@jddonline.com.
No abstract details for the moment.
No abstract details for the moment.
Kendra Gail Bergstrom MD FAAD|No abstract details for the moment.
Pipeline Previews brings to you information on the newest drugs and medical products as they become available to the dermatologic community. This department may include additional information from the manufacturers, plus reports from physicians who wish to share their clinical experience with these new products. In addition, we will inform our readers about the latest drugs receiving Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval.
Clinical Trial Review is a JDD department designed to provide physicians with information on drugs and devices undergoing clinical testing. It is our goal to inform the reader of the status of select drug and device studies relevant to the practice of dermatology before this information is available through standard channels. To participate in or learn more about these and additional trials, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Hema Sundaram MD, Susan Weinkle MD, Jason Pozner MD, Luc Dewandre MD, Joel L. Cohen MD, Lisa Donofrio MD, Daniel Cassuto MD, Timothy Flynn MD, Paul Lorenc MD, Steven Fagien MD, Gary Monheit MD, Philippe Kestemont MD, Mark G. Rubin MD, Rebecca Fitzgerald MD, Rod J. Rohrich MD, Andrew F. Alexis MD MPH, Murad Alam MD MSci, Julius W. Few MD, Gerhard Sattler MD, C. William Hanke MD MPH|Part II of this two-part supplement brings together experts from the U.S., France, Germany, and Italy to discuss state-of-the-art soft tissue fillers in a fair-balanced, CME-accredited format. It includes two roundtable discussions: the first, on new and emerging concepts in fillers, provides an overview of commonly used alloplastic filler products and examines how new strategies for soft tissue augmentation are developing as filler options continue to expand; the second discusses the physicochemical properties and potential clinical applications of two new ranges of hyaluronic acid fillers that display enhanced tissue integration after implantation. International case vignettes highlight our current understanding of facial fat compartments, special considerations for skin of color, and the Tower Technique for filler implantation. Finally, consensus recommendations for the use of blunt-tipped microcannulas in injecting soft tissue fillers are presented, as well as quick poll surveys on current hot topics.
This is a CME supplement; visit the JDD Medical Education Library to participate in this activity and earn 2 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits.