Volume 11 | Issue 4
Deborah S. Sarnoff MD|No abstract details for the moment.
Fran E. Cook-Bolden MD|No abstract details for the moment.
No abstract details for the moment.
Treatment of Moderate to Severe Acne Vulgaris in a Hispanic Population: A Post-Hoc Analysis of Efficacy and Tolerability of Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel
Background: Acne in Hispanics is an increasing problem, presenting unique challenges. Although combination therapy is now a standard of care in acne, concerns exist with the increased potential irritation and dryness in this population and the potential for hyperpigmentation. There is a paucity of clinical studies that evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of acne medications in Hispanics.
Methods: A post-hoc analysis of efficacy and cutaneous tolerability in 458 Hispanic subjects receiving clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/BPO 2.5% gel, individual active ingredients and vehicle from two 12-week multicenter double-blind studies that enrolled 2813 subjects with moderate to severe acne.
Results: Median reductions in inflammatory lesions, noninflammatory, and total lesions (71.6%, 50.9% and 55.1%, respectively) were significantly greater with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/BPO 2.5% gel versus the individual active ingredients and vehicle. Treatment success (35.6% "clear/almost clear") and patient satisfaction (83.2%) were also significantly greater than vehicle at week 12. Cutaneous tolerability was excellent with all mean scores less than or equal to 0.2 at week 12 (where 1=mild).
Conclusions: Overall efficacy and tolerability with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/BPO 2.5% gel were better in the Hispanic population compared to the total study population. Hispanic acne subjects were not found to be more susceptible to cutaneous irritation from treatment with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/BPO 2.5% gel and both efficacy and tolerability was excellent. J Drugs Dermatol.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):455-459.
The projections of increases in the number of skin of color patients over the next several decades, necessitates expertise in cultural competence for health care providers. Acquiring competency begins with practitioners reflecting on their self identity and personal beliefs. Additionally, understanding African-American cultural habits and practices and their impact on disease is critically important. We review, in this article, the fundamentals of becoming cultural competent. Patients are best served when their physician embraces their culture, their view of the health care system as well as habits and practices.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):460-465.
Background: Some dermatologic disorders are known to be much more common in patients of color, but the leading dermatologic disorders in patients of color have not yet been described on the basis of nationally representative data.
Purpose: To determine the leading dermatologic disorders for each major racial and ethnic group in the United States.
Methods: We queried the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) for the leading diagnoses in patient visits to U.S. dermatologists from 1993 to 2009. The leading diagnoses were tabulated for each racial and ethnic group, and the top conditions were compared between groups. In a separate analysis, visits for skin conditions regardless of physician specialty were analyzed for leading diagnoses in each racial and ethnic group.
Results: The top five diagnoses for African-American patients in dermatology clinics were acne, unspecified dermatitis or eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and dyschromia. For Asian or Pacific Islander patients, the top five were acne, unspecified dermatitis or eczema, benign neoplasm of skin, psoriasis, and seborrheic keratosis. By contrast, in Caucasian patients, the top five were actinic keratosis, acne, benign neoplasm of skin, unspecified dermatitis or eczema, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. In Hispanic patients of any race, the leading diagnoses were acne, unspecified dermatitis or eczema, psoriasis, benign neoplasm of skin, and viral warts. When the leading dermatologic diagnoses across all physician specialties were assessed, the top diagnoses for African-Americans were unspecified dermatitis or eczema, acne, dermatophytosis of scalp and beard, sebaceous cyst, and cellulitis or abscess; for Asians or Pacific Islanders were unspecified dermatitis or eczema, acne, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, and psoriasis; and for Caucasians were acne, unspecified dermatitis or eczema, actinic keratosis, viral warts, and sebaceous cyst. For Hispanics of any race, they were unspecified dermatitis or eczema, acne, sebaceous cyst, viral warts, and cellulitis or abscess. For a sole diagnosis of a dermatologic condition, only 28.5% of African-Americans' visits and 23.9% of Hispanics' visits were to dermatologists, as compared to 36.7% for Asians and Pacific Islanders and 43.2% for Caucasians.
Limitations: The data are based on numbers of ambulatory care visits rather than numbers of patients. Data on race or ethnicity were not collected for some patients.
Conclusions: Several dermatologic disorders are much more commonly seen in patients of color. Acne and unspecified dermatitis or eczema are in the top five for all major U.S. racial and ethnic groups. There may be an opportunity to improve the care of patients of color by ensuring they have equal access to dermatologists.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):466-473.
Background: The non-inflammatory linear verrucous subtype of epidermal nevi (LVEN) although generally benign, can be aestheti- cally displeasing and functionally disfiguring to patients.
Objective: To provide a permanent improvement in the clinical appearance of LVEN with minimal scarring.
Method: Electroplaning with Surgitron®FFPF EMC was the chosen method of treatment.
Results: Electroplaning is a simple, safe, and effective method for improving the appearance of non-inflammatory linear epidermal nevi.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):474-477.
Background: Psoriasis is a common skin disease in Caucasians but less common in African-Americans.
Aims: Our aim is to evaluate caregiver opinions regarding the clinical presentations and treatment of psoriasis in African-Americans compared to Caucasians.
Patients/Methods: A survey was sent to 29 dermatologists who are opinion leaders in the field of psoriasis. The survey included a number of questions regarding the characteristics of the patients seen in their practice.
Results: A total of 29 surveys were completed and returned. All of the dermatologists use the extent of disease as a criterion to determine the severity of the disease. Other criteria include scale, thickness, erythema, associated general symptoms, and dyspigmentation. About 66% of the respondents reported the different manifestations of disease, such as more dyspigmentation, thicker plaques, and less erythema in African-Americans. The most common first-line treatments for mild to moderate disease were highpotency topical steroids (68%) followed by topical vitamin D analogues (41%). For moderate to severe disease, the most commonly used first-line treatments were high-potency topical steroids (54%) and phototherapy (46%).
Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of psoriasis in African-Americans are not exactly the same as in Caucasians. Physicians should be aware of the difference in clinical manifestations in African-Americans. Further research and large-scale studies are necessary to elucidate the differences in the clinical presentation, natural course of the disease, and the criteria used for the evaluation of severity among ethnic groups.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):478-482.
Non-melanoma skin cancer most commonly affects Caucasians, and only rarely affects darker-skinned individuals. However, skin cancer in these groups is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Ultraviolet radiation is the major etiologic factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and likely plays a pivotal role in the development of other forms of skin cancer. Yet it is commonly thought among patients as well as physicians that darker pigmentation inherently affords complete protection from skin cancer development. This low index of suspicion results in delayed diagnoses and poorer outcomes. This review follows a detailed computer search that cross-matched the diagnosis of BCC with skin color type in a large commercial dermatopathology facility. The reported skin types, all Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI, and histories were confirmed. A predominance of pigmented BCCs was found in sun-exposed areas of these older individuals. Although less common in darker-skinned ethnic groups, BCC does occur and can pose significant morbidity. Thus, it is essential that dermatologists are familiar with the epidemiology and clinical presentation of all cutaneous malignancies in darker skin so that these patients are fully aware of risks as well as prevention of the disease.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):484-486.
Background: Impetigo is a highly contagious, superficial skin disease that is frequently seen in children. While data support the use of topical antibiotics for treatment, the medications actually prescribed in practice are not well documented.
Objectives: To determine the prescribing pattern of dermatologists and nondermatologists when treating impetigo and the demographics of the patients treated.
Methods: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data on office visits for impetigo were analyzed from 1997 to 2007. Patient demographics and the treatments for impetigo were recorded.
Results: During this 10-year period, dermatologists managed an estimated 274,815 impetigo visits and nondermatologists an estimated 3,722,462 visits. Both dermatologists and nondermatologists most frequently prescribed oral antibiotics to treat impetigo. Topical antibiotics were second most common, and a variety of combination treatments were used.
Conclusions: Oral antibiotics are the most common class of medications used to treat impetigo. There is an opportunity for physicians to take advantage of the equally efficacious topical antibiotics for treating impetigo. A shift towards topical antibiotics would likely decrease morbidity (resulting from adverse effects) associated with use of oral agents.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):489-494.
Treating Onychomycoses of the Toenail: Clinical Efficacy of the Sub-Millisecond 1,064 nm Nd: YAG Laser Using a 5 mm Spot Diameter
Background: Onychomycosis is a relatively common fungal infection. Current treatments have limited applicability and low cure rates. Recently introduced laser therapy has shown to be a safe and effective treatment for onychomycosis. In this study, we evaluate a submillisecond Nd:YAG 1,064 nm laser for treating onychomycoses of the tonail.
Methods: Thirteen subjects (9 female, 4 male) with 37 affected toenails received 1 to 3 treatments 4 and/or 8 weeks apart with a sub-millisecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed with microscopy. Average follow-up time was 16 weeks post-final treatment. Photos were taken and degree of turbidity was determined using a turbidity scale (ranging from "0 = clear nail" to "10 = completely turbid nail") at each visit. Improvement in turbidity was determined by comparison of turbidity scores at baseline and 16-week follow-up on average. Efficacy was assessed by an overall improvement scale (0 to 4), which combined improvement in turbidity scores and microscopic examination. Overall improvement was classified as "4 = complete clearance" if the turbidity score indicated "0 = clear nail" accompanied by a negative microscopic result. No microscopic examination was performed unless the turbidity score showed "0 = clear nail."
Results: Treatments were well tolerated by all subjects and there were no adverse events. Of the 37 toenails treated, 30 (81%) had "moderate" to "complete" clearance average of 16 weeks post-final treatment. Nineteen toenails (51%) were completely clear and all tested negative for fungal infection on direct microscopic analysis. Seven (19%) toenails had significant clearance and four (11%) had moderate clearance.
Conclusions: The preliminary results of this study show this treatment modality is safe and effective for the treatment of onychomycosis in the short term. Additional studies are needed to more fully assess the clinical and mycological benefits as well as optimize the treatment protocol and parameters.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):496-504.
Purpose: To determine whether oral zinc supplementation might affect the efficacy and duration of botulinum toxin treatments.
Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study, we examined the efficacy of three botulinum toxin preparations (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, and rimabotulinumtoxinB) following oral supplementation with zinc citrate 50 mg and phytase 3,000 PU, zinc gluconate 10 mg, or lactulose placebo in individuals treated for cosmetic facial rhytids, benign essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm.
Results: In seventy-seven patients, 92% of subjects supplemented with zinc 50 mg and phytase experienced an average increase in toxin effect duration of nearly 30%, and 84% of participants reported a subjective increase in toxin effect, whereas no significant increase in duration or effect was reported by patients following supplementation with lactulose placebo or 10 mg of zinc gluconate. The dramatic impact of the zinc/phytase supplementation on some patients' lives clinically unmasked the study and prompted an early termination.
Conclusions: This study suggests a potentially meaningful role for zinc and/or phytase supplementation in increasing the degree and duration of botulinum toxin effect in the treatment of cosmetic facial rhytids, benign essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):507-512.
An Open-Label Pilot Study of Naftifine 1% Gel in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp
Topical antifungal treatment is a mainstay of therapy for Seborrehic Dermatitis (SD). Although the amidazole and ciclopyridine antifungals have been extensively studied, few clinical efficacy data are available for topical allylamine therapy in SD. The objective of this open-label exploratory study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of natifine HCl 1% gel applied twice daily for 4 weeks, as topical treatment of moderate SD of the scalp. Nine subjects (5 men, 4 women) with a mean age of 56 (33-81) years with SD of the scalp were enrolled and made 4 visits to the site. At Visit 1 (Week 0), subjects were screened, enrolled, baseline efficacy data were obtained, and treatment was initiated. Subjects returned at Week 2, Week 4 (end of treatment), and Week 6 for efficacy and safety assessments. Efficacy was evaluated by changes from baseline in investigator-rated scores on 0-5-grade scales: (1) SD Global Evaluation Scale (SDGES), (2) Erythema Severity Scale, (3) Scaling Severity Scale, (4) % Scalp Involvement Scale, and subject-rated scores on the (4) Itching Severity Scale, and (5) Global Improvement Scale, where 0=none and 5=most severe. Mean severity scores for the SDGES and % Scalp Involvement scales progressively declined (improved) 66% and 54% from respective baseline levels at Week 6. Mean erythema rating decreased 38% from baseline and scaling decreased 50% from baseline by Weeks 4 and 6. Itching improved in 5 of 9 (56%) subjects by the end of treatment. A total of 8 of 9 (89%) subjects rated their symptoms as improved from baseline at the end of treatment and Week 6. There were no treatment-related adverse events during the study. These results suggest that naftifine 1% gel applied twice daily for 4 weeks is effective and safe topical treatment for moderate SD of the scalp.
J Drugs Dermatol.2012;11(4):514-518.
Background: Full-Thickness skin grafts are routinely used to reconstruct defects throughout the body. When planning the size of the graft, the surgeon usually copies a template from the defect and measures the graft to fit its full dimensions. This may lead to an oversized graft, resulting an unaesthetic outcome.
Objective: To evaluate discrepancy in size between the excised full-thickness skin and the excision (donor) site.
Methods: Data from 20 cases of full-thickness excisions was reviewed and analyzed.
Results: There was a considerable difference in length of both the short and long axes between the excised full-thickness skin and the excision site.
Conclusions: The initial size of a full-thickness skin graft should be smaller than the defect it is planned to cover.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):520-523.
Schamberg's disease is a pigmented purpuric dermatosis that is generally asymptomatic, however, patients with Schamberg's disease often seek treatment for aesthetic improvement. Many topical and systemic therapies have been tried without consistent results. This case series describes the treatment of five patients with Schamberg's disease of the lower extremities using Advanced Fluorescence Technology (AFT) pulsed light with favorable results.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):528-529.
Background: Although the exact pathogenesis of vitiligo is not fully understood, it appears to be an autoimmune disease. It is hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in vitiligo. TNF-α can destroy melanocytes through the induction of various apoptotic pathways. In addition, TNF-α can inhibit melanocyte stem cell differentiation.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treating vitiligo patients with anti-TNF-α agents.
Methods: A total of 6 patients were recruited. All patients had widespread non-segmental vitiligo. Biologics, including infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab, were given according to treatment regimens used for psoriasis. Photographs were taken at the initial visit, every two months during the therapy and then six months after therapy completion.
Results: All patients completed the treatment; two patients were treated with infliximab, two with etanercept, and two with adalimumab. All of the biologics were well tolerated throughout the treatment period, and none of the patients reported any significant adverse events. Digital images were compared before, during and after treatment. Repigmentation of the vitiliginous areas was not observed in any of the patients. Vitiligo worsened in one patient who was treated with infliximab and developed a psoriasiform rash. However, the remaining patients did not develop any new depigmented patches during treatment or at the six-month follow-up; vitiligo was considered stable in these five patients.
Conclusions: Although the anti-TNF-α agents were well tolerated in all six vitiligo patients, efficacy was not observed. Further evaluation with larger studies may be required.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(4):534-539.
Program Spotlight: The USF Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery Residency Training Program
Resident Rounds is a section of the JDD dedicated to highlighting various dermatology departments with residency training programs. Resident Rounds includes three sections: (1) a program spotlight, highlighting pertinent information about the department and residency training program; (2) a section presenting study materials used by residents at the program; and (3) a section designed to highlight recent interesting cases seen at the institution. This issue of Resident Rounds features the USF Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery Residency Training Program. The editor of Resident Rounds is Omar A. Ibrahimi MD PhD. He is currently the Director of Cutaneous Laser and Cosmetic Surgery and a Mohs surgeon at the University of Connecticut. Dr. Ibrahimi is also a Visiting Scientist at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School. If you are interested in highlighting your training program in a future issue, please contact Dr. Ibrahimi at OIbrahimi@jddonline.com.
No abstract details for the moment.
No abstract details for the moment.
David Schairer BA, Laura Schairer BA, Adam Friedman MD|Most dermatologists will treat at least one patient suffering from delusions of parasitosis (DP) in their career.1 These patients are memorable not only for the peculiarity of their delusions and their repeated visits to the office, but for the challenges they present in their treatment. These patients are also frustrating. It seems that if they could only stop scratching, picking and manipulating their skin their symptoms would improve. However, these cutaneous signs only hint at the underlying psychiatric problem that drives these patients to manipulate their skin. These patients seek out the assistance of dermatologists and eschew the help of psychiatrists or therapists because they believe that they have a primary skin disease. Although the treatment of DP is conceptually simple, it is not intuitive. Thus as dermatologists, we should have at the ready a full set of dermatologic, psychologic, and pharmacologic tools to treat these patients.
Pipeline Previews brings to you information on the newest drugs and medical products as they become available to the dermatologic community. This department may include additional information from the manufacturers, plus reports from physicians who wish to share their clinical experience with these new products. In addition, we will inform our readers about the latest drugs receiving Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval.
Clinical Trial Review is a JDD department designed to provide physicians with information on drugs and devices undergoing clinical testing. It is our goal to inform the reader of the status of select drug and device studies relevant to the practice of dermatology before this information is available through standard channels. To participate in or learn more about these and additional trials, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov.