Volume 10 | Issue 12
Short-Term and Low-Dose Oral FluconazoleTreatment Can Cause Stevens-JohnsonSyndrome in HIV-Negative Patients
Efi Pasmatzi MD, Alexandra Monastirli MD,Sophia Georgiou MD, George Sgouros MD, Dionysios Tsambaos MD PhD|No abstract details for the moment.
Emily P. Tierney MD,a David J. Kouba MD PhD,b C. William Hanke MD MPHc|Background: Tumescent liposuction (TL) allows the removal of large volumes of fat with minimal blood loss or postoperative morbidity, excellent cosmesis, and a remarkable safety profile.
Objective: To review the literature on the safety of tumescent liposuction, liposuction under general anesthesia and laser-assisted liposuction.
Results: Aggregate safety data on liposuction under tumescent anesthesia reveals over 100,000 body areas treated with liposuction. There were no serious complications of death, emboli, hypovolemic shock, perforation of thorax or peritoneum, thrombophlebitis, seizures, or toxic reactions to drugs. In contrast, in the plastic surgery literature, liposuction under general anesthesia was associated with complications of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolus, abdominal or other organ perforation, infection, and bleeding. Most recently, survey data in the European literature analyzed data showed 72 cases of severe complications from liposuction, including 23 deaths in a 5-year period from 1998 to 2002. The most frequent complications were bacterial infections such as necrotizing fasciitis, gas gangrene, and different forms of sepsis. Further causes of lethal outcome were hemorrhages, perforation of abdominal viscera, and pulmonary embolism.
Conclusion: Tumescent local anesthesia utilizing lidocaine with epinephrine allows the removal of large volumes of fat with minimal associated blood loss and postoperative morbidity.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1363-1369.
Polymer hydrogels have been used for many years in European and Asian countries, and these products are often considered to be the same material in different packaging. This, however, is not the case. Performance and safety profiles depend on many factors including chemical and physical characteristics (including rheological properties), manufacturing process and control (cross linking, impurities, stability, etc.), injection technique, and interaction with surrounding tissues. Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAH) products, although often considered equal, have clear differences in composition, manufacturing, and injection technique as well as ability to interact with surrounding tissues, characteristics that determine the safety and effectiveness profiles of each of these gels.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1370-1375.
Self-Reported Treatment Impressions and Satisfaction of Papulopustular Rosacea Patients Treated With Doxycycline, USP, 40 mg Capsules
Sandra Marchese Johnson MDa and Paul LeVine SMb|
Objectives: This survey program was designed to evaluate patients' experiences with doxycycline, USP, 40 mg capsules (30 mg immediate release, 10 mg delayed release beads, ORACEA®; Galderma Laboratories, L.P.) as a treatment for the inflammatory lesions of rosacea and to provide patient-reported feedback to physicians.
Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional survey was implemented in January 2010. One thousand, two hundred and ninety-five physicians identified patients eligible for treatment with doxycycline, USP, 40 mg capsules and provided them with information about the program. Patients voluntarily participated by contacting a program coordinator or by enrolling online, providing consent, and responding to a series of questions prior to medication use and approximately four weeks post-treatment initiation. Surveys were completed through an automated interactive voice response system or a dedicated, secure website and included questions regarding patients' perceptions of when the treatment first started working, patients' symptom severity, interference of symptoms with work and social activities, and confidence in appearance. Patients were also asked about prior medication use, adjunct medication use, and treatment satisfaction. Reports of patient progress and responses to these survey questions were sent directly to each patient's treating physician within a few days of survey completion. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in symptom severity, interference and confidence ratings before and after treatment.
Results: Two thousand, eight hundred ninety-eight patients enrolled in the survey program and completed the baseline survey. Of these, a total of 1,346 patients completed the baseline and four-week survey (mean age 50 years; 75% female). Most (58%) reported use of a prior prescription medication to treat rosacea. Over half the patients (52%) responded that the product began to work within two weeks of use. After four weeks of using doxycycline, USP, 40 mg capsules, patients felt that the severities of redness as well as bumps/blemishes were significantly reduced (P<.05). Patients also reported having more confidence with their skin's appearance (P <.05). In addition, with use of doxycycline, USP, 40 mg capsules, patients reported significant reductions in the interference of symptoms with work and social activities (P<.05). Satisfaction with doxycycline, USP, 40 mg capsules averaged 6.8 on a scale of 1 (not at all satisfied) to 9 (very satisfied) for patients using only doxycycline, USP, 40 mg capsules; mean satisfaction was 6.7 for those using it with adjunct medication. Seven patients reported 11 adverse events during the program, including lack of efficacy, joint injury with fatigue, dizziness, back pain, bloating and constipation, increased facial redness and pimples, yeast infection, sore throat, increased bruising and worsening of rosacea.
Conclusion: Satisfaction with doxycycline, USP, 40 mg capsules for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea was apparent from patient-rated measures of treatment impact. Patients with papulopustular rosacea reported improvement in symptoms, reductions in the interference of symptoms with life's activities and satisfaction with treatment with doxycycline, USP, 40 mg capsules.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1376-1381.
Safety and Efficacy of Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%-Benzoyl Peroxide 3% Fixed-Dose Combination Gel for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Active- and Vehicle-Controlled Study
Background: Topical fixed-combination therapy containing 1% clindamycin as 1.2% clindamycin phosphate (CLNP) and 3% benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is an effective treatment for acne vulgaris (acne).
Objectives: To demonstrate that the combination of 1.2% CLNP with lower strength BPO (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%) in a gel formulation is superior to each individual ingredient, CLNP 1.2% and BPO 3%, and vehicle gel.
Methods: A total of 1,319 patients with acne, aged 12 years or older, were enrolled and randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%, CLNP 1.2% gel, BPO 3% gel, or vehicle gel once-daily in a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled study. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 or early termination. Assessment of efficacy was evaluated using a six-point Investigator's Static Global Assessment (ISGA) and Subject's Global Assessment (SGA) of acne severity and lesion counts (inflammatory, non-inflammatory, and total). Safety assessments included skin tolerability and adverse events (AEs).
Results: A greater proportion of subjects who used CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% gel (39%) had a two grade improvement in ISGA from baseline to week 12 compared with CLNP 1.2% (25%; P<0.001), BPO 3% (30%; P=0.016), and vehicle (18%; P<0.001). CLNP 1.2%- BPO 3% was superior to CLNP 1.2% and vehicle alone in the absolute reduction from baseline to week 12 in all three lesion types (P<0.001 all pair-wise comparisons). CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% was superior to BPO 3% alone in the absolute reduction from baseline to week 12 in inflammatory (P=0.015) and total (P=0.032) lesion counts. The incidence of product-related AEs was low and similar in all study groups (1% with CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%, 2% with CLNP 1.2%, 2% with BPO 3%, and 2% with vehicle). Local tolerability assessments showed similar minimal changes from baseline to week 12 in all study groups.
Conclusion: CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% gel provides superior efficacy to improve ISGA score and reduce inflammatory and total lesion counts compared with the individual active ingredients (CLNP 1.2% and BPO 3%) and vehicle, while maintaining a highly favorable safety and tolerability profile similar to BPO 3% alone.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1382-1396.
Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate Chronic Hand Dermatitis With Clobetasol Propionate 0.05% EF Foam: Results From an Open-Label Study
Leon H. Kircik MDa,b and Cathy Tropmann RPhc|
Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of clobetasol propionate 0.05% emulsion formulation (EF) foam in subjects with mild-to-moderate chronic hand dermatitis.
Methods: This was a single-center, open-label pilot study of 30 adults with chronic hand dermatitis. Subjects were treated with clobetasol propionate 0.05% EF foam twice-daily and returned for assessment at day 8 and day 15. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects who achieved treatment success, defined as improvement of ≥1 grade in their chronic hand dermatitis as per the Investigator's Static Global Assessment (ISGA) from baseline to day 15. Safety and quality-of-life measures were also assessed.
Results: A minimum 1-grade improvement in the ISGA was achieved by 96.7 percent (29/30) of subjects at day 15, with 80 percent (24/30) of subjects achieving a score of 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear). Clobetasol propionate 0.05% EF foam appeared to be safe and well-tolerated, with only four subjects experiencing treatment-related adverse events. No pattern of adverse event occurrence or predisposition could be delineated from this study.
Conclusion: Clobetasol propionate 0.05% EF foam appeared to be safe and effective for the treatment of chronic hand dermatitis.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1398-1402.
Background: Female pattern hair loss affects many women; its pathogenetic basis has been held to be similar to men with common baldness.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of immunity and inflammation in androgenetic alopecia in women and modulate therapy according to inflammatory and immunoreactant profiles.
Materials and Methods: 52 women with androgenetic alopecia (AA) underwent scalp biopsies for routine light microscopic assessment and direct immunofluroescent studies. In 18 patients, serologic assessment for antibodies to androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and cytokeratin 15 was conducted.
Results: A lymphocytic folliculitis targeting the bulge epithelium was observed in many cases. Thirty-three of 52 female patients had significant deposits of IgM within the epidermal basement membrane zone typically accompanied by components of complement activation. The severity of changes light microscopically were more apparent in the positive immunoreactant group. Biopsies from men with androgenetic alopecia showed a similar pattern of inflammation and immunoreactant deposition. Serologic assessment for antibodies to androgen receptor, estrogen receptor or cytokeratin 15 were negative. Combined modality therapy with minocycline and topical steroids along with red light produced consistent good results in the positive immunoreactant group compared to the negative immunoreactant group.
Conclusion: A lymphocytic microfolliculitis targeting the bulge epithelium along with deposits of epithelial basement membrane zone immunoreactants are frequent findings in androgenetic alopecia and could point toward an immunologically driven trigger. Cases showing a positive immunoreactant profile respond well to combined modality therapy compared to those with a negative result.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1404-1411.
Is Chronic Cutaneous Discoid Lupus Protective Against Severe Renal Disease in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?
Joseph F. Merola MD,a Caroline A. Chang MD,b Miguel R. Sanchez MD,c Stephen D. Prystowsky MDc|Objective: The aim was to assess the level of systemic involvement and character of renal disease in patients with chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus of the discoid lupus variety (hereafter referred to as 'discoid lupus') and features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Clinical confusion with other types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus complicates interpretation of some previously reported studies.
Methods: Over three years, sixteen patients met the diagnostic criteria of discoid lupus, positive anti-nuclear-antibody, and at least one extracutaneous manifestation.
Results: Most patients (14/16) were female, between 26 to 66 years old. Arthritis was the most common extracutaneous manifestation followed by Raynaud's phenomenon. The anti-nuclear-antibody was speckled in ten patients with titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:1280 IU/mL. Elevated levels of double-stranded-DNA in low titers were found in four patients, anti-Smith-antibody in four; anti-Sjogren-syndrome-A-antibody in seven, and anti-ribonucleoprotein-antibody in seven. Renal function markers were transiently high in some patients but normalized over time. Hematuria and/or proteinuria were present at some time in seven patients. The highest BUN and creatinine levels were 42 mg/dL and 1.5 mg/dL, respectively. One patient had membranous glomerulonephropathy class 5; however, discoid lupus developed well after the onset of renal disease during a time when renal function had returned to normal.
Conclusion: Our observational data supports previous reports suggesting that patients with active discoid lupus rarely have progressive renal insufficiency. The mechanism for the development of discoid lupus may involve an immunologic mechanism that differs from that which produces severe organ involvement, especially advanced immune-complex-mediated renal disease. Patients with discoid lupus rarely have sustained high levels of antibodies to double-stranded-DNA. Discoid lupus appears to be a marker for a more benign lupus course. This clinical observation lays the groundwork for a larger prospective, longitudinal cohort study for further validation.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1413-1420.
Lana N. Pho MD, Mark J. Eliason MD, Michelle Regruto MD, Christopher M. Hull MD, Douglas L. Powell MD|Background: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a cutaneous disease that can be debilitating, difficult to treat, and sometimes life-threatening. Treatment with antihistamines is often ineffective. Immunosuppressants are second line therapy but can have significant side effects. Data is needed on effective therapies with safer profiles.
Objectives: To determine the efficacy and side-effects of colchicine in patients with CU. Methods: Patients were identified through retrospective chart reviews at the University of Utah from 2002-2007. We identified 36 patients with a diagnosis of chronic urticaria based on history, physical examination, and a skin biopsy. Length of treatment ranged from one month to 17 months.
Results: Subjective clinical responses to colchicine therapy reported as complete (n=15) or partial (n=5) were found in 56 percent of patients. The mean±SD duration of treatment was 7±6 months. Three patients (15%) who had resolution of urticaria stopped colchicine secondary to diarrhea and hematuria. Of the complete responders, nine individuals (60%) have remained symptom free and four individuals (27%) had recurrence after colchicine was stopped.
Limitations: Short-term follow-up and retrospective study design.
Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrated that colchicine was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients unresponsive to antihistamines. The data supports the use of colchicine for CU patients and further controlled studies are warranted to better characterize the use of colchicine in patients with CU refractory to antihistamines.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1423-1428.
Alexis L. Young MD, Jackleen Marji MD PhD, Marc E. Grossman MD|
Cutaneous drug eruptions are a common adverse reaction to medication. Creation of a drug calendar that covers a two-week span prior to the onset of rash is useful to identify the culprit agent. However, the creation of a drug calendar is often labor intensive. We developed an electronic version of a drug calendar that has considerably increased the ease and efficiency of completing a dermatology consultation.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1430-1431.
A Comparison of Cryotherapy and Imiquimod for Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: Lesion Clearance, Safety, and Skin Quality Outcomes
Background: There is limited direct comparative data on imiquimod versus cryotherapy to treat actinic keratoses.
Objective: Compare lesion response through 12 months post-initial treatment.
Methods: Patients with ≥10 lesions on the face or scalp were randomized to cryotherapy (up to 10 lesions per session, up to 4 sessions, every 3 months) or imiquimod (3—times—per—week for 3—4 weeks, up to 2 courses) with repeat treatment depending on response.
Results: In 36 patients assigned to cryotherapy and 35 to imiquimod, lesion complete response rates were 85.0 percent (306/360) and 66.9 percent (234/350) for cryotherapy and imiquimod, respectively (P‹0.0002). For completely cleared lesions, global skin quality was excellent in 82 percent (250/306) versus 100 percent (234/234) for cryotherapy and imiquimod, respectively (P‹0.0001). More cryotherapy than imiquimod patients had hypopigmentation (54.8% versus 24.0%, P=0.0197), as well as blister formation, redness/erythema, flaking/scaling/dryness, and scabbing/crusting (P‹0.05).
Conclusion: 12-month lesion complete clearance rate was higher with repeated cryotherapy, but cosmetic outcome was better with imiquimod.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1432-1438.
Comparison Between 1% Tretinoin Peeling Versus 70% Glycolic Acid Peeling in the Treatment of Female Patients With Melasma
Gita Faghihi MD,a,b Anahita Shahingohar MD,a Amir Hossein Siadat MDa,b|Melasma is an irregular brownish pigmentation observed on the faces of young to middle-aged women, especially of Asian races, which may contribute to various emotional disturbances. Although not any favorable treatment being approved yet, one appropriate approach is peeling by glycolic acid 70% (GA 70%). Considering the efficiency of Tretinoin in lower concentrations as over-the-counter lightening agents, peelings with higher strength Tretinoin may effectively relieve the pigmentation (melasma) sooner than other topical therapies.
Objective: The main purpose was to compare the efficiency and complications of GA 70% with Tretinoin 1% peeling.
Methods: A randomized, double-blinded clinical trial performed on 63 female patients with bilateral melasma. One facial side was treated by drug A (GA 70%) and the opposite side by agent B (Tretinoin 1%) peeling for four sessions with 2-week intervals. Descending changes in Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores, patients' discomfort and untoward complications following peeling all were evaluated and compared during the research period.
Results: The efficiency of Tretinoin 1% peelings in declining the MASI score (treatment of melasma) was similar to GA 70%, as well as the rare unwanted complications of them. However, the patients' discomfort following procedures as expressed by their own, was significantly lower with Tretinoin 1% compared to GA 70% peeling. The cases' satisfaction with the intervention was statistically similar to each other. Furthermore, we experienced almost the equal times of beginning the therapeutic responses in both groups.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1439-1442.
Rupatadine and Levocetirizine in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria: A Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety
Background: Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria is difficult to treat due to its persistent debilitating symptoms. New generation anti-histaminics are first line treatment for this condition. The aim of this study is to compare efficacy and safety of rupatadine and levocetirizine in chronic idiopathic urticaria.
Methods:A randomized, single blinded, single-centred, parallel group outdoor based clinical study was conducted in 70 patients of CIU to compare the two drugs. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, rupatadine was prescribed to 35 patients and levocetirizine to another 35 patients for 4 weeks. At follow-up, the patients were re-evaluated and then compared using different statistical tools. Main outcome measures were DC eosinophil, Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC), serum IgE, Total Symptom Score, Aerius Quality of Life Questionnaire score, and Global efficacy score.
Results:Rupatadine significantly improved patients′ clinical condition including symptom score from baseline to day 28. In rupatadine group, there was 27.9 percent decrease (P=0.027) in DC eosinophil, 35.6 percent decrease (P=0.036) in AEC, 15.3 percent decrease (P=0.024) in serum IgE, 28.2 percent decrease (P=0.02) in Total Symptom Scoring, and 27.3 percent decrease (P=0.006) in Aerius Quality of Life Questionnaire score. Global efficacy score of rupatadine was found to be significantly greater (P=0.009) than levocetirizine. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was also found to be less in rupatadine group
Conclusion: Rupatadine is a better choice in CIU in comparison to levocetirizine due to better efficacy and safety profile.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1444-1450.
Evaluation of a Prescription Strength 4% Hydroquinone/10% L-Ascorbic Acid Treatment System for Normal to Oily Skin
Suzanne Bruce MDa and JoAnne Watson DPMb|Introduction: A 4% hydroquinone/10% L-ascorbic acid treatment system aims to treat early signs of photodamage in normal to oily skin and help prevent further photodamage. The system also contains vitamin E, witch hazel, aloe barbadensis leaf juice, penetration-enhancing ingredients, micronized zinc oxide, and octinoxate.
Methods: Patients with minimal or mild facial photodamage and hyperpigmentation, and normal to oily facial skin, used the treatment system for 12 weeks.
Results: Of 34 females enrolled, 30 completed. Median scores for the overall integrated assessment of photodamage, overall intensity of pigmentation, fine lines and wrinkles, tactile roughness, and laxity were significantly improved at week 12 compared with baseline. Furthermore, ≥90 percent of patients considered their skin was smoother, softer, more evenly toned, and more radiant, and 100 percent were satisfied with the overall appearance of their skin.
Conclusion: The treatment system can help to ameliorate early signs of photodamage in normal to oily skin.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1455-1461.
Jesse Lewin MD, Rachel Farley-Loftus MD, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz MD|
The authors present a case of erythema multiforme-like drug reaction to the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. While considered targeted therapy, multikinase inhibitors have been demonstrated to have various cutaneous effects. It is important to distinguish allergic reactions from adverse side effects as the latter may permit cautious re-challenge with medications that can potentially prolong survival in patients with advanced or metastatic disease.
J Drugs Dermatol.2011;10(12):1462-1463.
Tiago Torres MD, Teresa Pinto Almeida MD, Rosario Alves MD, Madalena Sanches MD, Manuela Selores MD|
Granuloma annulare is a benign, usually self-limited, dermatosis of unknown cause. Generalized lesions occur in approximately 15 percent of patients with GA and may cause mild to severe cosmetic disfigurement. The treatment of generalized granuloma annulare can be challenging. We report the case of a 36-year-old male patient with a generalized granuloma annulare who had failed topical and systemic glucocorticoids, systemic retinoids, dapsone, minocycline, PUVA therapy, and hydroxicloroquine and was successfully treated with adalimumab, an anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody. Adalimumab may be an additional option in the treatment of recalcitrant forms of granuloma annulare.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1466-1468.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) results from human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I infection and may present as a diverse array of cutaneous findings. Often these clinical manifestations are non-specific and overlap significantly with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, it is exceedingly rare for a patient suffering from ATLL to develop vesicular or bullous pathology and only a handful of such cases have been reported in the literature. The authors describe a patient of Jamaican descent afflicted with ATLL who developed an impressive vesiculobullous eruption. This case provides further support of the near complete clinical overlap between ATLL and CTCL. Patients from HTLV endemic areas with consistent clinical manifestations should have viral serologies drawn as the treatment and prognosis of ATLL and CTCL differ greatly.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(12):1469-1471.
Michael Payette MD MBA|Resident Rounds is a section of the JDD dedicated to highlighting various dermatology departments with residency training programs. Resident Rounds includes three sections: (1) a program spotlight, highlighting pertinent information about the department and residency training program; (2) a section presenting study materials used by residents at the program; and (3) a section designed to highlight recent interesting cases seen at the institution. This issue of Resident Rounds features the University of Connecticut Dermatology Residency. The editor of Resident Rounds is Omar A. Ibrahimi MD PhD. He is currently the Director of Cutaneous Laser and Cosmetic Surgery and a Mohs surgeon at the University of Connecticut. Dr. Ibrahimi is also a Visiting Scientist at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School. If you are interested in highlighting your training program in a future issue, please contact Dr. Ibrahimi at [email protected]
No abstract details for the moment.
Justin Finch MD|No abstract details for the moment.
News, Views, & Reviews
Manifestations and Treatment of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (Part II of II)
David Schairer BA and Adam Friedman MD|No abstract details for the moment.
Pipeline Previews brings to you information on the newest drugs and medical products as they become available to the dermatologic community. This department may include additional information from the manufacturers, plus reports from physicians who wish to share their clinical experience with these new products. In addition, we will inform our readers about the latest drugs receiving Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval.
Clinical Trial Review is a JDD department designed to provide physicians with information on drugs and devices undergoing clinical testing. It is our goal to inform the reader of the status of select drug and device studies relevant to the practice of dermatology before this information is available through standard channels. To participate in or learn more about these and additional trials, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Perry Robins MD, Eliot F. Battle Jr. MD, Andrew F. Alexis MD MPH, Fran Cook-Bolden MD, Yasser Alqubaisy MD, Michael P. McLeod MS, Keyvan Nouri MD, Nazanin Saedi MD, Henry H. Chan MBBS MD PhD, Jeffery S. Dover MD, Vasanop Vachiramon MD, Amy J. McMichael MD, Jason J. Emer MD, Candrice R. Heath MD, Susan C. Taylor MD, Joshua Zeichner MD|As the population of the world shifts to include more patients of skin of color than ever before, learning how to appropriately treat this patient population has become increasingly more important to practicing clinicians. Patients of skin of color face unique challenges when it comes to procedures such as laser hair removal and treatment of conditions such as Pseudofolliculitis Barbae. This body of work seeks to provide dermatologists with unique clinical pearls discussing the use of safe treatment modalities in the skin of color population. From the use of lasers to the effective use of fillers and injectables, this body of work is filled with expert advice for optimizing treatment outcomes and increasing patient satisfaction. Via these clinical pearls, dermatologists can better meet the needs of a changing patient population as well as expand their knowledge base.